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  • IPEN-DOC 28695

    GIMILIANI, GIOVANA T. ; IZAR, GABRIEL. Difficulties in comparison among different microplastic studies: the inconsistency of results and lack of guide values. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v. 41, n. 4, p. 820-821, 2022. DOI: 10.1002/etc.5237

  • IPEN-DOC 28620

    ZEZELL, DENISE M. . Radiation Technology in Health Sciences at IPEN: a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary Professional Master Degree. Biophysical Reviews, v. 13, n. 6, p. 1531-1531, 2021. DOI: 10.1007/s12551-021-00844-3

    Abstract: INTRODUCTION The Professional Master Program in Radiation Technology in Health Sciences (MP-TRCS) of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute- IPEN/CNEN is a new program, started in August 2019. It is the only graduation program in the country to offer two nuclear reactors for educational purposes, for the development of dissertations, in addition to providing radiopharmaceuticals production in a nuclear reactor, in linear accelerator for radioisotope production, as well light and lasers applications. In addition to the infrastructure, the program has multidisciplinary training advisors working in an interdisciplinary manner who use their vast experience in radiation applied to medicine to guide students in a productive manner with a high degree of excellence. OBJECTIVES The MP-TRCS aims to fulfil a growing demand at IPEN/ CNEN from professionals working in hospitals and clinics, using ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS These students need a more dynamic course directed to the practical professional activities. We have students from the most diverse areas, such as medical doctors, biomedical doctors working in clinical analyses, radiotherapy physicists, physiotherapists, dentists specializing in imaging diagnosis and laser, among others, participating in the front line, who use radiation or assess its impact on their day-today routine. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS The first students have already begin to present their dissertation. The employability has increased among students enrolled in the program. CONCLUSION These professionals bring their experience to the program, which together with IPEN's academic structure and advisors, result in skilled students who are finding numerous career opportunities in the job market.

  • IPEN-DOC 28619

    VIEIRA, DANIEL P. . Three-dimensional cellular culture system for testing of biological effects of radiations in tumoral and non-tumoral models. Biophysical Reviews, v. 13, n. 6, p. 1521-1521, 2021. DOI: 10.1007/s12551-021-00844-3

    Abstract: In vitro cell cultures are a well-known controlled test system used to analyze tumor physiologic responses upon negative stimuli. Updated techniques, us-ing three-dimensional organization of cells in cultures, are being increasingly used to this purpose. Research organizations and industry are striving to pro-duce in vitro tumor surrogates that could be better test systems to antitumor agents as new compounds or to study radiation effects on cancers. The presentation will show some techniques currently used to build and maintain these specific cell cultures, and how experiments are evolving towards the production of tumoroids, or tumoral organoids, which will include various cell types and additive manufacturing.

  • IPEN-DOC 28618

    DEL MASTRO, NELIDA L. ; GERVASONI, J.L.. Women in the nuclear field promoting Latin American integration. Biophysical Reviews, v. 13, n. 6, p. 1517-1517, 2021. DOI: 10.1007/s12551-021-00844-3

    Abstract: Nuclear energy is used for the generation of electricity, but also for the production of radioisotopes, desalination of sea water and also for the production of hydrogen. Activities in the nuclear field are in the area of science, technology and innovation that has long belonged to an essentially male domain, in which the contributions of women were neglected or underestimated. The central idea for the creation of Women in Nuclear, WiN Global, was to support and encourage women working in nuclear science and technology and encourage the promotion of understanding and knowledge of the benefits of the peaceful use of nuclear energy by the public. WiN Global currently has predominantly female members coming from 129 different countries, belonging to chapters or individually. Today, WiN Global is integrated by 53 WiN Global chapters. Forty-nine countries have their own chapters and there are also regional and international ones. The history of Latin American integration started during the political independence movement of the countries of the New Continent. Since then, up and downs were overcome in order to keep a regional ambiance of good relationship. In the present study, a new form of integration is presented by the efforts of the women working in the nuclear ambit. This important movement involves Latin American WiN chapters (such as WiN Argentina, WiN Brazil, WiN ARCAL) promoting activities for the integration of our region. In order to quantify, to some extent, the participation of Latin American women, this paper presents a survey crossing data of the number of related publications to help to address an objective analysis of the trend of this integration.

  • IPEN-DOC 28617

    YOSHIMURA, TANIA M. ; SAUTER, ISMAEL P. ; RIBEIRO, MARTHA S. . Low power light triggers opposite effects on stem cells: influence of the wavelength and culture conditions. Biophysical Reviews, v. 13, n. 6, p. 1492-1493, 2021. DOI: 10.1007/s12551-021-00844-3

    Abstract: INTRODUCTION Photobiomodulation (PBM) has been gaining importance in a wide range of medical fields in the past few years, particularly in stem cell-based regenerative medicine. Improving in vitro cell proliferation, differentiation and viability are ways where PBM could play a pivotal role optimizing biotechnological and bioengineering applications. OBJECTIVES Here we investigated whether different wavelengths (blue, green and red) would promote distinct outcomes in human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) cultured in regular and supplemented media for tenocyte differentiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Freshly isolated hADSCs were cultured in a specific stem cell medium (MSCGM, Lonza), DMEM or a tenogenic medium (TEN-M: DMEM supplemented with growth factors and ascorbic acid). Cells were irradiated every 48 h (23.28 mW/cm 2 , 17 min 10 s delivering 24 J/cm 2 per session) using a LED irradiator (LEDbox, BioLambda). MTT and crystal violet assays were used to evaluate cell metabolic activity and proliferation. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS Red wavelength (660 nm) significantly increased metabolic activity after five irradiations, but only for cells cultured in TEN-M. Oppositely, blue (450 nm) and green (520 nm) light decreased both cell proliferation and metabolic rate, with more pronounced effects for blue light in TEN-M. Considering these findings, we examined whether irradiating only the media would generate toxic compounds that could impair cell viability. We therefore assessed reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by p-nitrosodimethylaniline/histidine assay while irradiating the three different media under the same conditions as mentioned above. Immediately after blue and green light exposure, an increment in ROS production was observed for DMEM and TEN-M, that continuously increased until reaching between 4.5 and 7.1 μM one-hour after irradiation – with higher values for TEN-M exposed to blue light. CONCLUSION Since no significant ROS formation was observed following red light exposure, we concluded that medium composition was responsible for the different effects on metabolic activity and proliferation observed after irradiation with different wavelengths.

  • IPEN-DOC 28616

    RIBEIRO, MARTHA S. . Light-based non-thermal therapy: from basis to clinical applications. Biophysical Reviews, v. 13, n. 6, p. 1491-1491, 2021. DOI: 10.1007/s12551-021-00844-3

    Abstract: Light-based non-thermal therapies are evolving as promising non-invasive and cost-effective medical technologies. These therapeutic platforms mainly encompass photobiomodulation (PBM) and photodynamic therapy (PDT), which use visible or near infrared (NIR) light to induce biological responses without any significant heating effects. For PBM, it is most commonly used red or NIR light to optimize light penetration into biological tissues. The photon absorption by natural chromophores at these spectral regions cause photophysical and photochemical reactions inside cells that trigger several biological effects such as to accelerate wound healing, reduce inflammation and relief pain, depending on light parameters and target tissue. On the other hand, PDT makes use of photoactivated drugs, also called as photosensitizers, which absorb light to induce chemical reactions that kill microbial or cancer cells by oxidative stress. Our group have been investigating the mechanisms and several applications of PBM and antimicrobial PDT (APDT) for almost 20 years. In this lecture I will share our experience in the area to discuss how PBM and APDT could be used to revolutionize health care in the photonics era. An integrated perspective from the basic mechanisms, preclinical and clinical trials for both therapies will be presented, including PBM on cancer management and APDT against drug-resistant pathogens. The lecture will also highlight future perspectives.

  • IPEN-DOC 28615

    LIMA, MAYELLE M.P. ; NASCIMENTO, PAMELA F. do ; NASCIMENTO, ANA C.G. ; VIEIRA, DANIEL P. . A simple and quick method to generate in vitro tridimensional tumor bodies from a human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) using magnetic aggregation technique. Biophysical Reviews, v. 13, n. 6, p. 1470-1470, 2021. DOI: 10.1007/s12551-021-00845-2

    Abstract: INTRODUCTION Tumor physiology studies have to rely on efficient and representative models, as animal-based or in vitro tridimensional cell constructs. The work used magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles produced by electron-beam induced chemical reduction to give cells the ability to form aggregates when submitted to a magnetic field, and thus to produce micro tumors in vitro. OBJECTIVES The work aimed to produce human breast adenocarcinoma mini tumors (BAMT's) in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS Paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (PION’s) were synthesized through electron-beam induced Fe3+ reduction and subsequent coprecipitation. Due to its poly-L-lysine coating, PION’s were adsorbed on cell membranes ofMCF7 (human breast adenocarcinoma). Cells were seeded in 24-well cell culture plates pre-treated overnight with Pluronic® F-127 to prevent cell adhesion and kept in culture conditions under magnetic fields for at least 6 days. BAMT's were differentially stained with Hoescht 33342 and ethidium bromide and imaged by wide-field fluorescence microscopy. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS BAMT's appeared as integer and well-defined cellular aggregates, with sparse dead cells stained by ethidium bromide. These structures can be further used for in vitro tumor studies, as BAMT’s are supposed to be more reliable models than monolayer cultures. Treatment of wells with poloxamer caused a mild to moderated cell-repellent effect, similar to those found in commercially available products, only by a fraction of the cost. CONCLUSION The experiments succesfully produced mini tumors prone to be used in in vitro studies.

  • IPEN-DOC 28614

    SANTOS, CAROLINA S.F. dos ; BELLINI, MARIA H. ; SANTOS, SOFIA N. dos ; ARAUJO, ELAINE B. de . Estudo sobre a eficiência do radiofármaco PSMA-1007-18F na detecção do câncer de próstata em um estudo pré-clínico in vivo. Biophysical Reviews, v. 13, n. 6, p. 1467-1467, 2021. DOI: 10.1007/s12551-021-00845-2

    Abstract: INTRODUCTION O PSMA-1007-18F é caracterizado por uma biodistribuição única em comparação com outros agentes de PSMA, pois é eliminado através do fígado, além de ter captação elevada dentro das células do câncer de próstata. OBJECTIVES O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar a especificidade do radiofármaco PSMA-1007-18F em camundongos com modelo tumoral PSMA+ através de um estudo de bloqueio. MATERIALS AND METHODS Animais SCID com células tumorais LNCaP foram preparados e divididos em quatro grupos (n=5) de acordo com os tempos de biodistribuição de 30 minutos, uma hora, duas horas e uma hora com agente bloqueador PSMA I&T (100μg/μL), sendo injetado 30 minutos antes do radiofármaco. Foram injetados 5,55 MBq (0,056 MBq/μL) via caudal nos animais e após os tempos pré-determinados foram sacrificados, com os órgãos de interesse coletados, pesados e sua atividade contabilizada. As imagens PET/CT foram realizados para ilustrar a captação do PSMA-1007-18F pelo tumor e por órgãos PSMA+ com e sem bloqueio. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS O grupo de 30 minutos apresentou maiores captações, caracterizando o estágio de distribuição. Rins e baço apresentaram alta captação pelo PSMA-1007-18F por serem PSMA+, onde sua especificidade pode ser constata pela drástica diminuição de captação nos animais com agente bloqueador. A captação pelas células tumorais de próstata se mostrou constante durante o período avaliado e foi efetivamente bloqueada pelo excesso de PSMA I&T (imagem), que confirma a ligação do radiofármaco aos receptores de PSMA. Apesar de apresentar uma baixa hidrofilicidade, a razão entre tumor/sangue e tumor/músculo foi de 14,18 ± 3,19 e 4,78 ± 1,52 em 1h, respectivamente. CONCLUSION O radiofármaco PSMA-1007-18F apresenta propriedades de ligação que fornecem captação tumoral específica. Sua viabilidade em imagens para câncer de próstata foi demonstrada pela alta especificidade pelas células PSMA+ e pela via de excreção hepatobiliar. Os resultados deste estudo serão úteis para subsidiar o registro e comercialização deste radiofármaco.

  • IPEN-DOC 28613

    NASCIMENTO, ANA C.G. ; GALISTEO JUNIOR, ANDRES J.; SILVA, GIOVANA D. da ; ROCHA, LEONARDO W.P. de S. ; VIEIRA, DANIEL P. . Effective methodology for maintaining Toxoplasma gondii in vitro using paramagnetic iron nanoparticles to support three-dimensional cell culture. Biophysical Reviews, v. 13, n. 6, p. 1466-1466, 2021. DOI: 10.1007/s12551-021-00845-2

    Abstract: INTRODUCTION Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects approximately one billion people worldwide. Upon infection, the host may die due to latent infection or presence with chronic cysts in brain, retina or muscle tissue. Humans can become infected consuming water or foods contaminated with oocysts or eating undercooked meat. Its virulent form is difficult to replicate in vitro, requiring additional steps using experimental animals. The use of nanotechnology can contribute to this in vitro production, through the three-dimensional cultivation of mouse fibroblast cells (NIH / 3T3 ATCC ® CRL-1658™) and nanoparticles synthesized with radiation. OBJECTIVES The objective of this work was to demonstrate the three-dimensional culture of fibroblast cells aggregated to nanoparticles for inoculation the T. gondii. MATERIALS AND METHODS This methodology was created to facilitate parasite management and replication. For the production of nanoparticles, the work used concentrations of iron sulfate II heptahydrate (Fe2SO4.7H2O, CAS 7782-63-0) and glycine (NH2CH2COOH, CAS 56-40-6) diluted in ultrapure water free ofO2 at pH 12. This solutionwas irradiated by electron beam of the IPEN / CNEN-SP Radiation Technology Center in doses of at least 15 and at most 30kGy. Paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (PION’s) were then adsorbed on cell membranes, and cells were kept together by a magnetic field. Structured spheroids (4 day of culture) were infected with 106 parasites (RH strain) and the infection was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS Tachyzoiteswere found inside 3T3 cells, assuring that the spheroid can be a suitable culture substrate to T. gondii in vitro propagation. CONCLUSION A three-dimensionalmethodology for in vitro cultivation of the parasite is perhaps the key for applications in the study of toxoplasmosis, as it has a fast, cheap, efficient production (yield and reduction of contamination).

  • IPEN-DOC 28612

    SEPULVEDA, ANDERSON F.; FRANCO, MARGARETH ; YOKAICHIYA, FABIANO; ARAUJO, DANIELE de. POLYana: a new software for rheological study of polymeric colloidal materials. Biophysical Reviews, v. 13, n. 6, p. 1464-1465, 2021. DOI: 10.1007/s12551-021-00845-2

    Abstract: INTRODUCTION POLYAna is a new executable software developed by SISLIBIO group for rheological analysis of hydrogel and organogel systems and other colloidal materials (nanoparticles and micelles). The software development aims to facilitate the analysis of rheology data associated to both temperature- and frequency-dependent analysis, viscosity and curve flow profiles. OBJECTIVES The software development aims to facilitate the analysis of rheology data associated to both temperature- and frequency-dependent analysis, viscosity and curve flow profiles. MATERIALS AND METHODS From raw data, several models are applied like power-law model for frequency response and curve flow, Boltzmann law to calculate gelation temperature and viscosity response under temperature,Maxwell model to study interchain relationships in addition to other models such as Bingham model, Cross model, and Herschel-Bulkley are also available. POLYana outputs calculates rheological parameters like consistency, adhesion, hysteresis, flow index, G’/G” ratio. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS To validate results obtained from POLYana, same data were analyzed by applying other programs and same mathematical models. In this sense, rheological analysis of Poloxamer 407 in water solution (15 %) were performed: from temperature-dependent G’ and G” analysis were obtained gelation temperature of 45.46 ± 0.02 °C, η_0 = 0.08 ± 0.03 mPa*s, η_max = (32.44 ± 0.17) mPa*s and dη/dT = (1.27 ± 0.02) mPa*s/°C by fitting Boltzmann law (R2 = 0.998), which are similar to results obtained by others softwares and found in literature. From temperature-dependent G’ and G” analysis, it gets adhesion value of (1647.15 ± 18.01) mPa*sn calculated from power-law model (R2 = 0.869), also similar to PRISM results. CONCLUSION Also, other Poloxamer concentrations and hydrogels types have been evaluated, showing close numbers to that previously reported. In order to stablish structural relationships, one of POLYana tools is also to analyze small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and develop Monte Carlo simulation for SANS and rheological analysis, simultaneously.

  • IPEN-DOC 28611

    SILVA, CAMILA R. ; PINTO, MAYARA S. ; RIBEIRO, MARTHA S. . Photodynamic therapy associated with ionizing radiation in the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer cells. Biophysical Reviews, v. 13, n. 6, p. 1386-1386, 2021. DOI: 10.1007/s12551-021-00845-2

    Abstract: INTRODUCTION Breast cancer is the most common cancer for women worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, it is considered the 5 th leading cause of death from cancer. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of this disease that represents around 20% of all invasive breast cancer, whose main characteristics are resistance to conventional treatments, such as exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). On the order hand, the photodynamic therapy (PDT) using porphyrins and their derivatives has been described in the literature as a potential therapy against cancer. OBJECTIVES Thus, our goal in this work was to associate PDT and IR in the treatment of TNBC. MATERIALS AND METHODS MDA-MB-231 cells at a concentration of 2x104 cells were submitted to PDT using TMPyP porphyrin (30 μM) and a red light (660 ±11 nm) with fluences of the 23 and 57.5 J/cm 2 (57.3 mW/cm 2). Immediately post-PDT, cells were divided into groups: non-treated (control), only IR and PDT associated with IR (PDT57+IR and PDT23+IR) and then, exposed to IR with a dose of 2.5 Gy. Past 24-h of the PDT-session, the cell viability, clonogenicity and total glutathione were verified. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS Cells exposed to IR not presented statistically significance difference compared to the control group. However, treated groups showed around 38% lower cell viability in relation to the control and IR groups. For the clonogenic assay a reduction of the approximately 65% was observed between IR and treated groups. Regarding to the total glutathione, all groups showed an increase when compared to control group. Nonetheless, no were identified differences between IR and treated groups. CONCLUSION Taken together, our results indicate that PDTassociate with IR may be an ally in TNBC treatment.

  • IPEN-DOC 28610

    PINTO, MAYARA S. ; SILVA, CAMILA R. ; SALVEGO, CAMILA de A. ; SIMOES, MARTHA R. . Red LED irradiation impacts the cytotoxic response of murine breast cancer cells to ionizing radiation. Biophysical Reviews, v. 13, n. 6, p. 1385-1385, 2021. DOI: 10.1007/s12551-021-00845-2

    Abstract: INTRODUCTION Breast cancer is a disease of worldwide importance since it is considered the 5th leading cause of cancer deaths. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a molecular subtype that presents resistance to conventional radiotherapy, demanding high doses of ionizing radiation (IR) for a prolonged period of treatment. On the other hand, low-level light irradiation (LLLI) has been studied to sensitize cells before IR exposure. However, the literature is poor regarding the association of both techniques in TNBC cells. OBJECTIVES Thus, we aimed to assess the effect of LLLI before IR exposure on two TNBC cell lineages. MATERIALS AND METHODS MDA-MB-231 (human TNBC) and 4T1 (murine TNBC) were cultivated, seeded at a density of 2.5 x 10 5 cells/cm², and maintained in an incubator (37ºC, 5% of CO2) overnight. LLLI was performed with a red LED (λ= 660 ± 11 nm, 38.2 mW/cm²) delivering energies of 1.2 J and 6.0 J. One-h after LLLI, the cells were submitted to both 2.5 and 5.0 Gy doses from a 60 CO source. After 24-h, mitochondrial activity (MA) was quantified by MTT assay with n= 9/group. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS Our data showed that 4T1 cells exposed to LLLI at 1.2 J exhibited higher MA than cells exposed to IR2.5. In contrast, cells exposed to 6 J of LLLI showed lower MA than IR5. Concerning MDA-MB231 cells, no statistically significant differences were noticed among groups regardless of IR and LLLI doses. CONCLUSION These findings indicate that LLLI before IR could sensitize only murine breast cancer. Besides, an appropriate combination of IR and LLLI doses seems to play a role to kill TNBC cells.

  • IPEN-DOC 28609

    SOUZA, MARESSA D.F. de ; ITRI, ROSANGELA; RIBEIRO, MARTHA S. . Reconstitution of Leishmania plasma membrane to understand the photodynamic effect. Biophysical Reviews, v. 13, n. 6, p. 1384-1384, 2021. DOI: 10.1007/s12551-021-00845-2

    Abstract: INTRODUCTION Leishmaniasis is an important neglected disease. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used to fight cutaneous leishmaniasis showing good results. However, PDT mechanisms in Leishmania parasites are not yet completely clarified. OBJECTIVES In this work, our objective was to develop a protocol to produce giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) from Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes to understand the mechanisms of action of methylene blue (MB)-mediated PDT on the cell membrane of parasites. MATERIALS AND METHODS For membrane extraction, several techniques were tested. The osmotic shock was the technique that presented the best yield and effectiveness. Phosphate and protein measurements were performed to confirm membrane extraction. For the growth of GPMVs, the best technique was electroforming using different frequencies and voltages in 4 cycles. Reconstituted GPMVs were observed by phase-contrast light microscopy. Subsequently, PDT was applied to GPMVs dispersed in an aqueous solution containing 50 μM MB and we verified the changes in permeability before and after exposure to light. The same processwas applied to giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) with lipid compositions similar to the parasite membrane. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS The electroforming technique with the protocol developed in this work made it possible to obtain GPMVs froma promastigote membrane isolate of L. amazonensis. The membrane isolation technique was effective to extract the parasite's membrane while preserving lipids and proteins. In GUVs we observe an increase in the area during PDT in different compositions and loss of contrast. The GPMVs showed a loss of contrast as well as the GUVs but did not show an increase in area. CONCLUSION This factor could be explained by the high degree of complexity of the membrane, which contains membrane proteins in addition to containing lipids.

  • IPEN-DOC 28608

    SOUZA, TIAGO H. dos S.; ANDRADE, CAMILA; CABRAL, FERNANDA ; SARMENTO-NETO, JOSE; REBOUCAS, JULIO; SANTOS, BEATE; RIBEIRO, MARTHA ; FIGUEIREDO, REGINA; FONTES, ADRIANA. Effects of photodynamic inactivation mediated by Zn(II) porphyrin on promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis. Biophysical Reviews, v. 13, n. 6, p. 1380-1381, 2021. DOI: 10.1007/s12551-021-00845-2

    Abstract: INTRODUCTION Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) has been attracting attention as an innovative technology to treat topical diseases, such as cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and infections caused by multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Zn(II) meso-tetrakis(N-n-hexylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin (ZnTnHex-2-PyP 4+ ) is a lipophilic water-soluble Zn(II) porphyrin with improved photophysical properties, high chemical stability, and cationic/ amphiphilic character that can enhance its interaction with cells. OBJECTIVES Thus, this study aimed to investigate the PDI effects mediated by ZnTnHex-2-PyP 4+ on Leishmania amazonensis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Confocal fluorescence microscopy was explored to study the interaction of ZnTnHex-2-PyP 4+ with promastigotes. The PDI action was analyzed by cell membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and cell morphology. Promastigotes were incubated with ZnTnHex-2-PyP 4+ for 5 min at 0.62 and 1.25 μM and irradiated by a LED (410 nm) for 1 or 3 min (2.3 and 3.4 J/cm 2 , respectively). PDI on amastigotes and the cytotoxicity onmacrophages were also analyzed (3.4 J/cm 2 ). DISCUSSION AND RESULTS Fluorescence microscopy revealed that parasites efficiently uptake ZnTnHex-2-PyP 4+ and displayed a punctate labeling pattern along with the cytoplasm. An intenseΔΨmdepolarization was also observed, which in association with microscopy results, suggests that ZnTnHex-2-PyP 4+ may accumulate in the mitochondrion, or other well-defined structures close to it. Moreover, ZnTnHex-2-PyP 4+ at concentration as low as 0.62 μM led to the immediate inactivation of >95% of promastigotes, regardless of the light dose used. Loss of the fusiform shape and plasma membrane wrinkling were also observed. After a single treatment session in amastigotes, PDI led to a reduction of 70% in the infection index. No considerable toxicity was observed on mammalian cells. CONCLUSION Thus, PDI of Leishmania parasites showed in vitro efficiency at a submicromolar concentration of ZnTnHex-2-PyP 4+ , with short pre-incubation and irradiation times. The results encourage further studies in CL pre-clinical assays and PDI of other microorganisms.

  • IPEN-DOC 28607

    CONTATORI, CAROLINA G. de S. ; PINTO, MAYARA S. ; RIBEIRO, MARTHA S. . Melanoma cell migration in response to red and near-infrared low-level light. Biophysical Reviews, v. 13, n. 6, p. 1380-1380, 2021. DOI: 10.1007/s12551-021-00845-2

    Abstract: INTRODUCTION Cell migration plays an important role in tissue formation and cancer progression. In vitro scratch assay has been used for many years to study cell migration to mimic the migration of in vivo cells, and, thus, to evaluate cancer growth. Low-level red and near-infrared light (LLL) can increase normal cell migration. However, the impact of LLL on tumor cells remains unclear. OBJECTIVES In this work, we aimed to evaluate the effects of a single LLL dose on melanoma cell migration. MATERIALS AND METHODS B16F10 (murine melanoma) cells were cultivated in RPMI medium with 10% of fetal bovine serum until they reached 80% confluency. The cell line was seeded in a 6-well plate at a density of 2x10 5 cells/well in triplicate at two different moments. A wound scratch was performed to disrupt the confluent cellmonolayerwith a 10 μL pipette tip. Immediately after the injury, the cells were submitted to the LLL at two distinct wavelengths (660 and 780 nm) provided by a LED and a laser, respectively, delivering 3 different energies (1.3, 3.6, and 6 J) at an irradiance of 4.2 mW/cm 2 . The control group was not irradiated. Cells were photographed immediately and at 3, 12, 24, and 36 h after the scratch. The wound closure was measured using ImageJ software. To evaluate the overall migration, we calculated the areas under the curve for each group. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS Cells exposed to the red laser at 6 J migrated slower than control. In contrast, LLL at 780 nm promoted faster cell migration when irradiated with 3.6 J. CONCLUSION These results suggest that low-level LEDs at 660 nm could prevent melanoma progression in higher energies. However, 780 nm should be avoided at middle energies.

  • IPEN-DOC 28606

    MITSUTAKE, HERY; SOUZA, ALESSANDRO D. de; YOKAICHIYA, FABIANO; FRANCO, MARGARETH K.K.D. ; CLEMENS, DANIEL; KENT, BEN; BREITKREITZ, MARCIA C.; RIBEIRO, LIGIA N. de M.; PAULA, ENEIDA de; BORDALLO, HELOISA N.. Evaluation of structural changes of benzocaine-loaded, optimized nanostructured lipid carriers using SANS and Raman imaging approaches. Biophysical Reviews, v. 13, n. 6, p. 1335-1335, 2021. DOI: 10.1007/s12551-021-00845-2

    Abstract: INTRODUCTION Local anesthetics are substances that reversibly block the nerve-impulse conduction, alleviating pain without loss of consciousness. Benzocaine, a poorly soluble local anesthetic, is an ester of para-aminobenzoic acid. Several strategies of formulations can be used to improve bioavailability and decrease adverse effects of benzocaine. In this study nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) were employed. These lipid-based drug delivery carriers have a lipid core composed of a blend of solid and liquid lipids, and a shelf of non-ionic surfactant. OBJECTIVES The main aim of this work was to optimize benzocaine-loaded NLC and to investigate structural changes in these nanoparticles, under different temperatures. MATERIALS AND METHODS The ratio of excipients (cetyl palmitate, Capmul® PG-8 NF and Pluronic®F68) and benzocaine in the NLC was optimized using a 2 3 factorial design with respect to the following parameters: particle size, polydispersity index (PDI) and zeta potentials. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS The interactions between the factors were found relevant to determine particle size and PDI. Using desirability function, the best formulation conditions were found. Structural changes in optimized NLC were observed with Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) and Raman imaging, in samples at 27, 37 and 40º C. SANS pointed the formation of lamellar structures inside the NLC, which interlamellar distances increase at higher temperature. Raman imaging showed that the incorporation of P68 and benzocaine in-between the lipids increased at higher temperatures, explaining the changes in Q values (SANS). CONCLUSION This work shows how different scattering techniques can provide complementary information and be used together to characterize and understand the physical, chemical, and structural changes on the organization of pharmaceutical carriers in drug delivery system.

  • IPEN-DOC 28605

    SANTOS, CAROLINA M. dos ; SAMPAIO, SUELEN de B.; SANTANA, FAGNER ; LEITE, RODRIGO C. ; PRATA, BEATRIZ A. ; AFFONSO, REGINA . A new approach for purification of the catalytic site of the Angiotensin Conversion Enzyme, N domain, mediated by the ELP-Inten system. Biophysical Reviews, v. 13, n. 6, p. 1305-1305, 2021. DOI: 10.1007/s12551-021-00845-2

    Abstract: INTRODUCTION Angiotensin-converting enzyme I, ACE, is a key part of the renin-angiotensin system whose main function is to regulate blood pressure and balance of salts in the body. ACE1 has two isoforms, somatic, sACE, and testicular, tACE. sACE possesses two domains, N- C-, with catalytic sites which exhibit 60% sequence identity. These domains differ in terms of chloride-ion activation profiles, rates of peptide hydrolysis and sensitivities to various inhibitors. N-domain has specific action in the hydrolyze of Alzheimer’s diseases beta amyloid bodies and angiotensin 1-7, which active the MAS receptor and triggering anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory actions. OBJECTIVES The objective this work was to obtain catalytic site Ala361 to Gli468 of the N-domain region, csACEN, isolation without chromatographic and denaturant chemical process. MATERIALS AND METHODS For that, a new methodology was used in the expression of the csACEN peptide, in which the peptide was linked to the elastin-like polypeptide, ELP, and Intein, and expressed at 37C. The characterization of catalytic site was made by SDS-PAGE and dot blotting. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS The culture temperature at 37C significantly increased the expression of the ELP/Intein/csACEN fusion protein. This culture was lysed at a low temperature allowing the fusion protein to become soluble. The precipitation of ELP at high concentrations of ammonium sulfate were obtained in 0.57 M and 0.8 M. Intein autocleavage occurs at acidic pH and it is important to pay attention to: pI 6.65 for csACEN and pI 6.87 for ELPcsACEN, which are very low. The best autocleavage efficiency was withMES and TriHCl buffers, pH 6.3 and 6.8, respectively, in which pure csACEn peptide was obtained. CONCLUSION The strategy used to obtain the Ala361 to Gli468 catalytic site in soluble and pure form was obtained with success and the protocol for obtaining similar peptides was established.

  • IPEN-DOC 28604

    TREMARIN, BEATRIZ; YOKAICHIYA, FABIANO; KELLERMANN, GUINTHER; FRANCO, MARGARETH K.K.D. ; STORSBERG, JOACHIM. Improvement of the methodological strategies to product functionalizes antibodies using Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). Biophysical Reviews, v. 13, n. 6, p. 1301-1301, 2021. DOI: 10.1007/s12551-021-00845-2

    Abstract: INTRODUCTION Antibodies are used by jawed vertebrates for defense against invading pathogens. Usage of those versatile tools in a plethora of settings in clinics and biomedical sciences hinges on functionalization strategies that retain native antibody reactivity. To this date, antibody functionalization is performed by trial and error. OBJECTIVES We aim to reduce costs by providing general principles to allow the full spectrum of antibody functionalization by correlating functionalized antibody reactivity to cognate antigen by small angle neutron scattering, SANS, measurements and mathematical modeling of antibody and antibody-antigen super-complexes, obtained by titration experiments. MATERIALS AND METHODS For this research we have used for as antibody pure goat anti rabbit immunoglobulin, and for the antigen, pure Horseradish Peroxidase Preliminary results show that the systems (antibody and antibody-antigen complexes) do not change in the range of a temperature related to storage temperature (25º C), body temperature (37º C) and 40º C. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS These results will give us the pair distribution function of these systems and the results will be viewed in light of published precedence to highlight areas where future effort is needed to refine such versatile tools and improve their production. However, between the antibody and the complexes structure, different conformations were observed. The antibody has a globular structure with a radius of gyration around 33 Å, and the complexes display an elongated cylindrical shape with radius of gyration around 63 Å. CONCLUSION This study shows how the scattering techniques (SANS) can provide useful information about the conformation of the antibody and antibody-antigen formation and help to shed light in the understanding the physical, chemical, and structural changes on the organization of these important antibody functionalization for the immunological system.

  • IPEN-DOC 14592

    SUZUKI, L.C.; YAMADA JUNIOR, A.M. ; HAYEK, R.R.A.; RIBEIRO, M.S. . A case report of photodynamic therapy on bacterial reduction before immediate implant. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 127-127, 2004.

    Abstract: Recent studies have demonstrated that a number of oral bacteria can be killed by photodynamic therapy with low concentrations of dyes. Photodynamic therapy is the combination of light with appropriate wavelength and a photosensitizer. The antimicrobial activity is mainly mediated by singlet oxygen and/or free radicals generated by the photoactivated sensitizer. A flap surgery aiming an immediate implant was made in a residual root with periodontal lesion on upper first premolar. After the extraction, a microbiological sample with sterile paper points was harvested. Then, the photosensitizer was applied in the infected alveolus and irradiated with low-intensity laser, ?= 660 nm, P= 30 mW and E= 9 J . After the photodynamic therapy, a new microbiological sample was harvested. Subsequently, it was prepared the implant bed with conical burs and then the implant was placed. Patient was medicated with antibiotic after surgery. The microbiological analysis showed a significant reduction of Prevotella sp., Fusobacterium sp. and Streptococcus beta-hemoliticus. This finding suggests that photodynamic therapy is an alternative method to disinfect alveolus before implant placement. Therefore, this study highlights the need for future work in the area of photodynamic therapy to reduce bacteria without harming host tissue.

  • IPEN-DOC 14214

    NAKASONE, R.K.; RODRIGUES, C.R.M.D.; BUZALAF, M.A.R.; OLYMPO, K.P.K.; TANJI, E.Y.; RIBEIRO, M.S. . Effects of the low-intensity red laser radiation on the fluoride uptake in human enamel: a preliminary study. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 119-120, 2004.

    Abstract: Fluoride has been the most important preventive method on development of the caries. This in vivo study evaluated the effects of lowintensity red laser radiation on the fluoride uptake in enamel. Ten healthy participants were recruited for this study. The two upper central incisors of each volunteer were used and divided into 4 groups: group GC (control), which was untreated; group GF (fluoride), which received topical acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) 1,23% treatment for 4 minutes; group GLF (laser + fluoride), which was irradiated with a low-intensity diode laser (l= 660 nm and dose= 6 J/cm²) with APF application after irradiation and group GFL (fluoride + laser), which received APF before irradiation using the same parameters as GLF. The determination of fluoride was performed using a fluoride ion electrode after an acid-etch enamel biopsy. The results showed a significant increase of the fluoride uptake in enamel for groups GF, GLF and GFL when compared to control group. Although a percentage increase of 57% was observed for GLF with respect to GF, there were no statistical differences among the treated groups. These findings motivate further studies in order to introduce low-power laser associated to APF as a protective method of dental caries.

  • IPEN-DOC 14036

    MULLER, K.P. ; YAMADA JUNIOR, A.M. ; SUGAYAMA, S.T.; RIBEIRO, M.S. . Local Treatment using high and low-power laser on herpes simplex. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 119-119, 2004.

    Abstract: Herpes simplex (HSV) is commonly encountered in the dentistry practice disappearing after 10 to 14 days. Recently alternative treatments have been introduced, among those laser therapy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of laser therapy in patients with perioral herpes simplex infection. A 32 years old female was treated with high-intensity laser therapy (HILT) in vesicle phase using a Nd:YAG laser, l= 1064 nm, P= 1,5 W, f= 15 Hz on days 1 and 2 to drainage the vesicles. Low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) was applied on the affected area in the 3 consecutive days with a GaAlAs laser, l= 830 nm, D= 5 J/cm2. On the other hand, a 7 years male patient, which presented the vesiculo-ulcerative stage, only LILT (l= 660 nm, D= 4 J/cm2) was carried out. For both cases, it was observed that the course of the infection was quicker than the normal. Seven days after treatment beginning the lesions were healed. These findings suggest that LILT associated or not to HILT is a efficient and promising treatment for HSV. Further larger studies aiming at confirming these data and investigating the LILT mechanisms of action should be performed.

  • IPEN-DOC 13067

    LOLLATO, R.F.; GROTH, E.B.; RIBEIRO, M.S. . Low-intensity laser therapy and functional orthopedics in the treatment of pain from temporomandibular disfunction. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 114-114, 2004.

    Abstract: Temporomandibular Disfunction (TMD) is a term used to describe disorders, which involve temporomandibular joint (TMJ), masticatory muscles, and associated structures, isolated or not, whose most frequent symptom is pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate pain and buccal mobility in subjects with Cl II malocclusion and TMD symptoms, treated with low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) and functional orthopedics (FO), associated or not. Eighteen subjects were selected and divided into three groups. Group 1 was treated with LILT, l = 780nm, 70 mW, 15 J/cm2 per point during two weeks. The application was in three points around the TMJ, and trigger points of masticatory muscles. Group 2 received Planas functional appliances and it was evaluated once a week during two weeks. Group 3 received both treatments at the same time, and the first laser application coincided with the appliance installation. Subjects answered a questionnaire with a score for pain evaluation after palpation. There was pain relief for the 3 groups and no statistical differences were observed among them, however, group 3 showed a remission of pain faster than other groups. This finding indicates the association of the LILT with FO for pain relief in TMD.

  • IPEN-DOC 13052

    KOHARA, E.K. ; KATO, I.T.; WETTER, N.U. . Effects of 960nm diode laser irradiation and fluoride on calcium solubility of dental enamel in vitro. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 112-112, 2004.

    Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine the effects of diode laser (?=960 nm) irradiation on calcium solubility of dental enamel. Sixty enamel specimens were prepared from human teeth and divided into four groups (control, fluoride, laser and fluoride plus laser). Prior to the irradiation a vegetable coal diluted in physiological solution was applied to the enamel surface and the specimens were irradiated using 6,5 W of peak power, 5 ms of pulse duration, 10 Hz of repetition rate, fluency of 3,7 J/cm2 and time exposure of 10 seconds. The acidulated phosphate fluoride was applied for 4 minutes. Next, the specimens were immersed in lactic acid for 24 hours at 37 °C. The calcium content in demineralization solution was evaluated with Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry. The results indicate an increase in calcium solubility (12%) after laser irradiation, however, not statistically significant. When associated with fluoride, the decrease in calcium solubility did not differ from the results obtained with fluoride only. It can be concluded that in this experiment diode laser irradiation did not increase acid resistance of dental enamel.

  • IPEN-DOC 13050

    KOHARA, E.K. ; WETTER, N.U. ; RATTICHIERI, F.; KATO, I.T.. Microhardness of the dental enamel surface after irradiation with 960nm diode laser. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 111-112, 2004.

    Abstract: Several authors analyzed laser irradiation of dental enamel in an attempt to increase acid resistance and achieve caries prevention. In some cases, the procedure has also been associated to the application of a layer of fluoride. Micro-hardness measurements are reliable tests used to determine the degree of resistance to demineralization. In this work micro-hardness values of superficial dental enamel have been measured before and after irradiation with a 960 nm diode laser, using tested laser parameters that are safe and cause no injuries to the adjacent tissue. Laser parameters were below the dental enamel ablation threshold. 60 enamel samples were used and divided into control group (GC), fluoride application (GF), laser irradiation (GL), fluoride application with subsequent laser irradiation (GFL) and laser with subsequent fluoride application (GLF). A solution containing coal was used on the enamel surface in order to absorb the laser radiation. A statistically significant loss of the micro-hardness value was obtained for all groups except for GL but also this group did not produce significant micro-hardness increase. Conclusion: at the current peak power and beam quality of standard diode laser bars, safe laser parameters do not produce higher micro-hardness values.

  • IPEN-DOC 13014

    CAMARGO, A.; BALDOCHI, S. ; CAMARGO, S.; EDUARDO, C.P.. "In vitro" evaluation of morphologic changes on the root dentine irradiated by CO2 laser associated or not to calcium hydroxide. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 102-103, 2004.

    Abstract: This in vitro study has evaluated the structural changes on the root dentine irradiated by a CO2 laser associated or not to calcium hydroxide - an alternative method for dentine hypersensitivity treatment. Fourteen human teeth 3rd molars were utilized, divided into 7 groups. Group I (control group),Groups II, III and IV received an application of Ca (OH)2 paste followed by CO2 laser irradiation for 5 seconds, intervals of 10 seconds, continuous emission, power of 0.5W, constant distance of 30mm (Group II), 1.0W (Group III), 1.5W (Group IV); Groups V, VI, VII received laser irradiations following the same parameters applied to groups II, III, and IV. Morphologic changes suggesting to fusion and re-solidification were observed, and the presence of material obstructing the whole analyzed surface on groups II, III, and IV. For groups V, VI, and VII, fusion, re-solidification, and cracks, were observed, results statistically significant (P<0,01). No statistically significant differences were observed in groups that used the same treatment. Powers above 1.0W (DP=125,38W/cm2) showed carbonization and dark surface, results unfavorable due to the undesirable morphologic alterations and aesthetic compromising.

  • IPEN-DOC 13005

    ARCHILLA, J.R.F.; TANNOUS, J.T.; PELINO, J.E.P.; FREITAS, P.M.; SILVA, D.F.T.; RIBEIRO, M.S. . Spectroscopic analysis and interaction of different bleaching agents with 660n laser and 470 nm LED. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 100-100, 2004.

    Abstract: The aim of this in vitro study was to verify the effect of different dental bleaching methods regarding the achromatic enamel color change. Forty-five bovine teeth were immersed in a darkening solution and then divided into nine experimental groups with five samples in each group. The color measurement was initially taken using a digital colorimeter. The teeth were submitted to the bleaching with three bleaching gels, without any activation source (control) and with two wavelengths (660 nm diode laser and 470 nm LED). The previous analysis of the absorption spectra enabled the choice of an adequate wavelength in order to enhance its photochemical action. The second color measurement was taken after all the treatments. The data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey parametric statistical tests (p=0,05). It was observed that: 1) there was a statistical significant difference between the activation sources; 2) there was statistical significant difference regarding the interaction among the activation sources and the bleaching gels when compared with each other. The activation methods of the bleaching agents, even promoting color changes in distinct levels, still require further studies capable of detecting a higher absorption spectrum of a product and which presents significant clinical results.

  • IPEN-DOC 13002

    TODESCAN, C.D.R.; VIEIRA JUNIOR, N.D. ; SAMAD, R.E. ; FREITAS, A.Z. ; EDUARDO, C.P.. Ultrashort pulses over bovine dental enamel. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 91-91, 2004.

    Abstract: The interaction of lasers with the hard structures of the teeth, has found the excess of heat as a problem for its utilization. This study analyzes, in vitro, the interaction of the ultrashort pulse laser of Ti:safire (830 nm) with the bovine dental enamel. The system consisted in one main oscillator integrated with an amplifier (CPA). The pulses extracted before the temporal compression inside the amplifier had 30ps, 1000Hz and ~1mJ. The pulses extracted after the compression had 60fs, 1000Hz and ~0,7mJ. The M2 was 1,3, the focal lens 2,5 cm, the focal distance 29,7 and a computadorized translation stage x,y,z moved the sample. We evaluated the amount of tissue removed per pulse,the resulting cavities and the surrounding tissues not irradiated, under OM and SEM. The fluency was the major factor for differentiating the two regimens studied, therefore, the intensity was not so important as we expected in this process. We found: one ablation region in "cat tonge", one ablation length, one fluency ~0,7J/cm2 for 30ps and ~0,5J/cm2 for 60fs (50% ofhigh speed burr), smooth edge for 30ps and high precision of the shrp edge cut of submicrometric order for 60fs.

  • IPEN-DOC 12992

    GODOY, B.M.; ARANA-CHAVEZ, V.E.; BORTOLI GROTH, E.B.; RIBEIRO, M.S. . Effects of low-intensity red laser radiation on the dentine-pulp interface after class I cavity preparation disfunction. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 86-87, 2004.

    Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-intensity red laser radiation on the ultrastructure of dentine-pulp interface after conventionally prepared class I cavity preparation. Eight premolars indicated for extraction for orthodontic reasons from 2 patients were used. Class I cavities were prepared and the teeth were divided into two groups. The first group received a treatment with a GaAlAs laser, l= 660 nm, P= 30 mW and D= 2J/cm2. The laser tip was applied directly and perpendicularly into the cavity in only one sense. The teeth from the second group had their class I cavities prepared but they did not receive the laser therapy. All cavities were filled with composite resin. Twenty-eight days after the preparation, the teeth were extracted and processed for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Two sound teeth (healthy group) without any preparation were also examined. The first group presented odontoblastic processes in intimate contact with the extracellular matrix, while the collagen fibers appeared more aggregated and organized than those of the second group. These results were also observed in the healthy teeth. The results suggest that laser irradiation accelerates the recovery of the structures at the dentine-pulp interface involved during cavity preparation layer.

  • IPEN-DOC 12991

    NUNEZ, S.C. ; GOMES, L.; GARCEZ, A.S.; LAGE-MARQUES, J.L.. Comparative study between photodynamic therapy and chemical solution on bacterial reduction in root canals. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 85-85, 2004.

    Abstract: One of the major medical problems facing mankind in the next century will be the resistance of many pathogenic microbes to existing antibiotics. Oral bacteria can easily reach other body sites and also spread to other individuals. Therefore, antibiotic-resistant oral bacteria have the opportunity for rapid dissemination through the community and to transfer their resistance genes to other bacterial species. Photodynamic therapy involves the use of light-activated drugs which may offer an alternative approach to the use of traditional antimicrobial agents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate bacterial reduction in infected root canal. Thirty teeth with their root canals prepared were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. Control group was untreated. Chemical group was treated with sodium hypochlorite for 30 minutes and in the laser group, a photosensitizer paste was placed and maintained in the root canals for 5 minutes and irradiated with a diode laser, output power 10 mW and l= 685nm for 3 minutes. The bacterial reduction was significantly higher for laser group when compared to chemical and control groups. These results indicate photodynamic therapy as an effective method to kill E. faecalis.

  • IPEN-DOC 12376

    NUNEZ, S.C. ; GOMES, L.; GARCEZ, A.S.; MULLER, K.P. ; JORGE, A.O.C.; RIBEIRO, M.S. . Photodynamic action of toluidine blue in streptococcus mutans by fluorescence spectroscopy. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 84-85, 2004.

    Abstract: The antimicrobial activity of toluidine blue associated with red light has been demonstrated for a wide range of microorganisms including those commonly found in infected root canals, carious lesions and periodontal pockets. Recent reports have drawn attention to the problems of antimicrobial resistance and resistance of oral bacteria to antibiotics and local antiseptics is of increasing concern, thus photodynamic therapy could be an alternative antimicrobial approach to treat localized infections in oral cavity. In this study the fluorescence spectra of TB were obtained before and after laser exposure in the presence or absence of Streptococcus mutans. The dye concentration was 0.01%, the irradiation was performed with a diode laser, l= 660 nm, P= 40mW, exposure time of 3 minutes in a volume of 0.5 ml, with a pre-irradiation time (PIT) of one or five minutes. The results showed shifts in fluorescence spectra observed for different preirradiation times in the presence of S. mutans. In the absence of bacteria, a shift in the spectra was observed in the dye before and after irradiation. These findings may indicate a photobleaching of the dye denoting structural alterations after irradiation and confirm the importance of the PIT for the success of this therapy.

  • IPEN-DOC 11770

    YAMADA JUNIOR, A.M. ; HAYEK, R.R.A.; GIOSO, M.A.; FERREIRA, J.; BATISTA SOBRINHO, C.A.; RIBEIRO, M.S. . Bacterial reduction by photodynamic therapy in peri-implantitis: an in vivo study. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 84-84, 2004.

    Abstract: Progressive peri-implantar bone losses, which are accompanied by inflammatory process in the soft tissues is referred to as peri-implantitis. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of lethal photosensitization with the conventional technique on bacterial reduction in ligature induced peri-implantitis in dogs. Seventeen third premolars of eight Labrador dogs were extracted and, immediately after, the implants were submerged. After osseointegration, peri-implantitis was induced. After 4 months, ligature were removed and the same period was waited for natural induction of bacterial plaque. The dogs were randomly divided into two groups. In the conventional group, they were treated with the conventional techniques of mucoperiosteal flaps for scaling the implant surface and irrigation with chlorexidine. In the laser group, only mucoperiosteal scaling was carried out before photodynamic therapy. On the peri-implantar pocket an azulene paste was introduced and a GaAlAs low-power laser (l= 660 nm, P= 30 mW, E= 5,4 J and Dt= 3 min.) was applied. Microbiological samples were obtained before and immediately after treatment. The results of this study showed that Prevotella sp., Fusobacterium e S. Beta-haemolyticus were significantly reduced for the conventional and laser groups (100%,99.8%; 100%,100%; 85.7%,97.6%, respectively).

  • IPEN-DOC 11228

    KOHARA, E.K. ; CRUZ, D.R.; WETTER, N.U. ; RIBEIRO, M.S. . Effects of low-intensity laser therapy on the Orthodontic movement velocity of human teeth: a clinical study. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 84-84, 2004.

    Abstract: Low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) has been studied in many fields of Dentistry, but, to our knowledge, it is the first time that its effects on orthodontic movement velocity in humans are investigated. In our study, eleven patients were recruited for a two-month study. One half of the upper arcade was considered control group and received mechanical activation of the canine teeth every thirty days. The opposite half received the same mechanical activation and was also irradiated with a diode laser (?=780nm) on ten points around the root, during 10s with 20 mW, 5 J/cm2, on four days of each month. Data of the biometrical progress of both groups were statistically compared. All patients showed significant higher retraction velocity of the canines on the laser treated side when compared to the control. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that LILT does accelerate human teeth movement and could therefore considerably shorten the whole treatment duration.

  • IPEN-DOC 11177

    BARROSO, M.C.S.; WETTER, N.U. ; PELINO, J.E.P.. Dental bleaching efficacy with diode laser and LED irradiation: an in vitro study. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 77-77, 2004.

    Abstract: Objective: This in vitro study evaluated the whitening efficacy of LED and diode laser irradiation during the dental bleaching procedure, using the two agents Opalescence X-tra and HP Whiteness. Background: Bleaching techniques achieved significant advances with the use of coherent or incoherent radiation sources to activate the bleaching chemicals. Methods: Atotal of 60 bovine incisors were randomly divided into six groups, three for each bleaching agent, receiving 1) only agent, 2) agent and LED irradiation at wavelength of 470 nm, 3) agent and 1.6 watt diode Laser at 808 nm. The results of the irradiations were characterized with the CIELAB system by measuring the L*a*b* values for the teeth before and after bleaching. Results: The average increase of the lightness value (CIELAB L*) of the different groups was 3-7 and the average chroma value decreased by 5-9. Conclusions: This is to our knowledge the first time that the light sources Laser and LED are compared with respect to their whitening capability when applied to different agents. Best overall results are obtained with the Whiteness HP and Laser association.

  • IPEN-DOC 10875

    HAYEK, R.R.A.; YAMADA JUNIOR, A.M. ; GARCEZ, A.S.; NUNEZ, S.C. ; SUZUKI, L.C.; RIBEIRO, M.S. . Comparation between photodynamic therapy and a bactericidal solution in the treatment of dental alveolitis microbiological evaluation. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 110-110, 2004.

    Abstract: Photodynamic therapy is a new therapeutic modality to treat microbial infections. The aim of this pilot study was to compare this new therapeutic approach with clorhexidine in mini pigs induced alveolitis. Alveolitis is an inflammatory disease that involves the superficial bone layer in the dental alveolus. Eight dental elements were extracted from mini pigs and immediately after the alveolus were contaminated with Streptoccocus aureus. After seven days the area presented edema and hyperemia. In the clorhexidine group the alveolus were debrided and irrigated with a 0.12% solution of clorhexidine. In Laser group the alveolus were debrided and photodynamic therapy was performed consisting in the application of a azulene paste inside the alveolus with a preirradiation time of 5 minutes followed by irradiation with a low power diode laser, ?= 685 nm, P= 50 mW, E= 9 J, for 3 minutes. Microbiological samples were harvested before and after treatment for both groups with sterile paper points. The results showed bacterial reduction in both groups, although photodynamic therapy was significantly more effective to reduce the population of S. aureus. This finding indicates that photodynamic therapy can be an alternative method to the treatment of alveolitis.

  • IPEN-DOC 10464

    ZEZELL, D.M. ; BEVILACQUA, F.M.; MAGNANI, R.; ANA, P.A. ; EDUARDO, C.P.. Fluoride incorporation and acid resistance of dental enamel irradiated with Er:YAG: atomic absorption spectrometry and spectrophotometry. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 131-131, 2004.

    Abstract: Er:YAG effects on dental enamel surface regarding the resistance to demineralization and the fluoride incorporation were evaluated. 80 samples were divided into 8 groups: G1) control - APF application; G2) conditioning with 37% phosphoric acid and APF application; G3) irradiation with 250 mJ/pulse, 7 Hz, 31,84 J/cm2 (contact) and APF application; G4) irradiation with 200 mJ/pulse, 7 Hz, 25,47 J/cm2 (contact) and APF application; G5) irradiation with 150 mJ/pulse, 7 Hz, 19,10 J/cm2 (contact) and APF application; G6) irradiation with 250 mJ/pulse, 7 Hz, 2,08 J/cm2 (non-contact) and APF application; G7) irradiation with 200 mJ/pulse, 7 Hz, 1,8 J/cm2 (non-contact) and APF application; G8) irradiation with 100 mJ/pulse, 7 Hz, 0,9 J/cm2 (noncontact) and APF application. All samples were immersed in 2,0 M acetic-acetate acid solution, pH 4,5 for 8 hours. The fluoride, calcium and phosphorous ions were analyzed, by atomic absorption spectrometry and spectrophotometry. Groups laser irradiated before topic APF application presented better results than the control. There was higher fluoride incorporation on G7 and G8. Calcium and phosphorous analysis reveled a decrease on the enamel demineralization on G2 and G3 groups. The Er:YAG laser on irradiation conditions of this work is a promissory alternative for the Preventive Dentistry.

  • IPEN-DOC 10306

    ZEZELL, D.M. ; MIYAKAWA, W.; RIVA, R.; WATANUKI, J.T.. Monte-Carlo Modelling of light propagation in hard dental tissues. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 131-131, 2004.

    Abstract: In the Monte-Carlo model, we simulated the propagation of visible light and the temperature distribution in human tooth, which reflects the energy deposited in the tooth by the laser. As a turbid medium, differences in absorption and scattering coefficients of the enamel and dentine must be taken into account. These data are not completely established in the literature in the visible range. The results are compared with experimental data of Cu-HyBrID laser light propagation in human molar teeth, in order to evaluate the scattering coefficient. The Cu-HyBrID laser emits green (510 nm) and yellow (578 nm) radiation with high output peak power (20 kW) at high repetition rates (13.7 kHz) and there is almost no report of its use in Dentistry. This work aims to correlate the Cu-HyBrID energy deposition with the tooth thermal response. The tooth is predominantly a scattering medium (absorption much lower than scattering) and small variations in the absorption coefficient do not reveal significant alterations in the light distribution curve. According to the simulation, most of the laser energy is accumulated on enamel-dentine junction and the tooth thermal response is strongly affected by the value of the absorption coefficient, which is not yet precisely known.

  • IPEN-DOC 09172

    HAYPEK, P.; THEODORO, L.H.; BACHMANN, L. ; EDUARDO, C.P.; SAMPAIO, J.E.C.; ZEZELL, D.M. . Effects of the diode laser irradiation on root surfaces: thermal analysis. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 110-110, 2004.

    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature rising inside the pulpar cavity during the diode laser irradiation on the root surface. Twelve single root teeth were used and their mesial and distal surfaces were irradiated (808 nm, 400 m, 30 s), in a continuous mode (CW) and in an switched mode (SW) (10 Hz). The temperature rise was evaluated deppending with the power used (0.4 W to 2.2 W). The temperature was monitorated with a termopar (T) fixed inside de pulpar cavity during the irradiation. In a second step two parameters was used in a SW (10 Hz). The safety temperature was keep using the power: Group A - 0.9 W (mesial ) and Group B - 1.08 W (distal). The results showed the termal pulpar events (T) during the irradiation, based in an specific relation with the power (P), like T= -0.4+3.7P in a CW and T= -0.2+2P in a SW. The temperature rising during the irradiation was 3.4±0.4ºC on Group A and 4.0±1.0ºC on Group B. The irradiation mode and the power are much important to temperature rise inside the pulpar cavity and the 0.9 W and 1.08 W radiation on the root surfaces were safety.

  • IPEN-DOC 08515

    FERNANDES, A.S.F.; NAVARRO, R.S.; GONTIJO, I.; HAYPEK, P.; ZEZELL, D.M. ; HADDAD, A.E.. Intrapulpar temperature variation in primary teeth during cavity preparation using: Er:YAG laser and conventional high-speed drill. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 106-107, 2004.

    Abstract: Increases of temperatures superior than 5-5.5°C can compromise the pulp vitality. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the variation of the pulp temperature in primary teeth during the cavity preparation. Twelve primary lower incisors (Human Tooth Bank-FOUSP) were divided in 4 groups (n=3): cavity preparations were performed at buccal surface, refrigerated by air-water spray, during 20sec, using #1090 diamond burr in highspeed drill in carious-free incisors (G I) and carious incisors (G II); or Er:YAG laser (2.94μm)(KaVo 3)(LELO-FOUSP), with 6Hz repetition rate/ 600mJ energy as orientated by manufacturer, in carious-free incisors (G III) and carious incisors (G IV). The variation of temperature was measured using digital oscilloscope and thermocouple type K placed inside the pulpar chamber, simultaneously the teeth was kept under water thermal bath during the procedures. The temperatures rises were less than 4ºC in all cavities preparations in different groups, the variation of temperature in laser and conventional high-speed drill groups showed similar values. The groups of carious teeth showed higher increase of temperature than carious-free teeth. The Er:YAG laser demonstrated be a safe alternative for cavities preparations in primary teeth, since that using effective and safety parameters by qualified and trained professionals.

  • IPEN-DOC 08431

    EDUARDO, P.L.P.; BACHMANN, L. ; SALVADOR, V.L.; ZEZELL, D.M. . Chemical Modification of bovine dental enamel irradiated with holmiun laser. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 106-106, 2004.

    Abstract: This study investigated Ho:YLF (2,065 mm) effects on dental enamel with regards to the thermal variations in the pulp chamber during irradiation and resistance to demineralization. Twenty samples of bovine enamel were divided: 1) control- acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) topic application followed by demineralization treatment with lactic acid; 2) Ho:YLF irradiation (100J/cm2) followed by APF and demineralization; 3) Ho:YLF irradiation (350J/cm2) followed by APF and demineralization; 4) Ho:YLF irradiation (450J/cm2) followed by APF and demineralization. All samples were quantified according to their calcium and phosphorous atoms relative concentrations before and after the treatments. X-Ray fluorescence spectrochemical analysis showed an increase on the calcium and phosphorous atoms concentration ratio and therefore the enamel demineralization reduction as a result of the lactic acid treatment in the samples irradiated with the holmium laser followed by the APF (ANOVA, Tukey p<0,01). To evaluate the feasibility of this study for clinical purposes, surfaces morphology were analyzed. Modifications were characterized by melted and re-solidified regions of the enamel, which can changes its permeability and solubility. Temperature changes of ten human pre-molars teeth irradiated with 350 J/cm2 and 450 J/cm2 were also monitored in the pulp chamber in real time. Temperature increases were limited to 4,2° C.

  • IPEN-DOC 08368

    ANA, P.A. ; VELOSO JUNIOR, W.F.; CLAUDIO, T.; ZEZELL, D.M. . 3D-Finite element and thermographic analysis of human teeth irradiated with ErCrYSGG. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 99-99, 2004.

    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyse surface and pulpal temperature changes in extracted human teeth subjected to Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation by using Finite Element Method (FEM) and comparing with thermal analysis made by thermocouple and thermocamera. Twelve extracted human molar teeth were selected and divided into three groups, according to the following Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation conditions: 2.8 J/cm2, 5.6 J/cm2 and 8.5 J/cm2. During laser irradiation, surface temperature was measured using a thermocamera (FLIR Systems - USA) and the pulpal temperature was monitored by means of a thermocouple type T placed in the pulpal chamber. For FEM analysis, it were constructed numerical models that reproduced a typical sound molar teeth and the analysis simulated the absorption of the laser energy and the heat transfer through the tooth in three dimensions, considering the same laser energy and conditions performed in thermocouple and thermocamera measurements. The results showed that theoretical FEM calculation showed good agreement with the thermocamera and thermocouple obtained data, simulating heat transfer and predicting the temperature increase. It was possible to conclude that 3D Finite Element Method gives good results that makes possible to understand the thermal behavior of dental material.

  • IPEN-DOC 08253

    ANA, P.A. ; ROCHA, R.M.M.; BLAY, A.; AUN, C.E.; LAGE-MARQUES, J.L.; ZEZELL, D.M. . Effects of Er, Cr:YSGG Laser irradiation on endodontics system permeability. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 99-99, 2004.

    Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on root dentin permeability. Twenty extracted single-rooted teeth were instrumented with K-files and divided in four groups, according to laser fluences: GI (non-irradiated), GII (12.5 mJ/pulse; 2.8 J/cm2), GIII (25 mJ/pulse; 8.5 J/cm2) and GIV (75 mJ/pulse; 16.98 J/cm2). Lased groups had an association of irrigating solution EDTA-T and Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation, which was performed at 20 Hz repetition rate without airwater spray, with four helicoidal movements during approximately 5 seconds. NDP associated with rhodamine B dye was used to evaluate dentin permeability. After the experimental period, the samples were transversely cut into six 2.0 mm thick slices for subsequent reading using the ImageLab software. The results showed that dentin permeability of root canals was decreased when exposed to Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation compared with non-irradiated samples, and this alteration was higher when higher fluences were applied. The cervical and middle thirds had permeability values statistically similar (p > 0.05) and significantly greater than the apical third. It can be concluded that the use of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation at the utilized parameters decreases dentin permeability, favoring the root canal sealing.

  • IPEN-DOC 08225

    EDUARDO, F.P.; NICOLLI FILHO, W.; MIGLIORATI, C.A.; ZEZELL, D.M. ; EDUARDO, C.P.; SCHUBERT, M.M.. Effects of low intensity laser radiation in the prevention of oral mucositis in patients undergoing bone marrow transplant. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 97-97, 2004.

    Abstract: Oral mucositis is one of the complications arising from pre bone marrow transplant conditioning, which can substantially change the patient's quality of life. The purpose of this randomized double blind study was to compare the effects of low intensity laser radiation in the prevention of oral mucositis in patients undergoing bone marrow transplants. Seventy patients at the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance in the U.S.A. were approved by the local ethics committee and gave their informed consent to take part in the study. The 70 patients were divided into three groups (group 1 - laser 650nm; group 2 - laser 780nm and group 3 placebo). The therapy or placebo treatment began on the first day of the conditioning and continued through to two days following the bone marrow transplant. Mucositis was measured according to the oral mucositis rate and the pain assessment rate (VAS). We were thus able to conclude that the diode 650nm laser indeed decreased the severity of oral mucositis as well as the degree the pain when used as a preventative therapy in patients undergoing bone marrow transplants. In this study, low intensity laser therapy was regarded as safe and did not present any side effects.

  • IPEN-DOC 06392

    PAIVA, P.F.; PAIVA, G.; NASR, M.K.; NUNES, L.J.; MOREIRA, L.A.; ZEZELL, D.M. . Cavity preparation with ER:YAG laser: pain evaluation. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 94-94, 2004.

    Abstract: They were selected for this work clinic patient of the which were selected 15 teeth with decay lesion, being ten teeth with lesion type class I, of these five for the group-control with high conventional rotation, and five for the group laser class I, and five teeth with lesion type class Vfor the group laser. In the preparations with laser of Er:YAG (Kavo Key Laser 2), any patient do not was anesthetized, even in the deepest cavities, and the maximum degree of pain (that varied from 0 to 10) it was of 4. In the group-control, with mounted tip in high conventional rotation, two patients were anesthetized, and the maximum degree of pain was of 7. The use of the laser in the dental clinic (restorative dentistry), using the technology laser in the dental preparations, it showed to be a good alternative to the use of the mounted tip in high conventional rotation. 94

  • IPEN-DOC 06281

    GUIMARAES, J.G.A.; MIYAKAWA, W.; STOLF, S.F.; SILVA, E.M.; ZEZELL, D.M. ; EDUARDO, C.P.. In vitro thermographic measurement in pulpal chamber during diode laser bleaching. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 94-94, 2004.

    Abstract: Thermographic was employed to determine the temperature rise in lower incisors pulpal chambers during diode laser bleaching. Two methods were used: a thermocouple for 72 teeth and a infrared (IR) thermographic camera for 36. Two bleaching agents, both 35% hydrogen peroxide- Whiteness HP (HP) and Hi Lite (HL) - were applied to the specimens buccal surfaces and irradiated with a diode laser (808 5nm), CW for 30s. Intensities tested were 21.W/cm2, 29.8W/cm2, 35.8W/cm2, 38.2W/cm2, 52.9W/cm2 e 63.7W/cm2. Means of the greatest temperature rises with the HL were statiscally lower than the HP (p<0.01). When HP was irradiated with 50.9W/cm² and 61.1W/cm², the temperature registered was over 5.5ºC, considered as the limit to avoid pulp damage. The IR thermacam analysis showed that, when the HP was used, the temperature rise in pulp chamber was similar to the target area on the buccal surface. Evaluation of tooth color was done using a VITAshade guide at baseline and at the end of the bleaching treatment. Both products proved to be efficient, however HP produced statiscally higher shade changes than HL (p<0.01). It can be concluded that the diode laser bleaching associated with the HP was safe when intensities below 50mW/cm2 were employed. Higher parameters can cause damage to pulp vitality of the lower incisors, fact that did not occurred with the HL gel. Both gels were efficacious to the bleaching technique proposed, but the HP showed better results.

  • IPEN-DOC 05701

    GONTIJO, I.T.; CIAMPONI, A.L.; ZEZELL, D.M. ; NAVARRO, R.; RODRIGUES, W.; CIAMPONI, A.L.. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of deciduos teeth withening technique: the diode laser and light cure. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 93-93, 2004.

    Abstract: A great number of children suffer from traumatic injuries on the deciduous dentition. The darkening resulting from these injuries create an aesthetic probem in these children in the middle of their psychosocial development. The whitening technique might be a satisfactory aesthetic resolution, as well as non-invasive. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate "in vitro" and "in vivo" the teeth color variation and superficial temperature, obtained by the thermocatalytic technique used in devitalized human deciduous teeth, as well as evaluate "in vivo" the teeth color variation obtained by the whitening. The whitening agent was the hydrogen peroxide 35%,having as a variant the source of catalyzing energy- diode laser and the light curer. 21 deciduous teeth were utilized. The light curer group-11 teeth and the laser group, 10.The color evaluation was carried out by the spectrophotometer and VITA 3D scale. After statistic analysis, it can be concluded that the whitening was verified by both methods.The temperature variation was significantly higher in the light cure group than in the laser group.

  • IPEN-DOC 05446

    ANDRADE, A.K.P.; FEIST, I.S.; CAI, S.; PANNUTI, C.; ZEZELL, D.M. ; DE MICHELI, G.. Bacterial reduction in class II furcation after root debridment with or without Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 90-91, 2004.

    Abstract: The use of Nd:Yag laser for bacterial reduction as an adjuvant to nonsurgical periodontal treatment has been approached in several studies. Furcation complex anatomy is responsible for comprised treatment results in this areas due to the lack of proper access for instrumentation showing the persistence of a pathogenic microbial flora. The purpose of this clinical trial, randomized, double-blinded was to evaluated the bacterial reduction achieved with the Nd:YAG associated to conventional treatment on furcation sites of patients with chronic periodontitis. In a split mouth design study, 34 class II furcations that were selected from 17 patients with chronic periodontitis. They received previous full mouth periodontal treatment, except for the experimental sites. The 17 furcations of the Control group underwent twice manual and ultrasonic root debridment in weekly intervals. The Test group received the same treatment as the Control group followed by the Nd:YAG laser application (100mJ/pulse; 1.5W; 15Hz; 60sec). The microbiological parameters total numbers of anaerobic Colony Forming Units(CFU); Black pigmented CFU and the level of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans(Aa), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Prevotella intermedia(Pi) were determined at baseline, immediatly and one month after the treatment. The results showed a significant reduction of total CFU for both groups immediately after the treatment, but it was better for the Test group. After one month the total CFU average increased but was still below pretreatment levels for both groups. The black pigmented CFU and the level of Aa, Pg e Pi decreased significantly after the treatment but 30 days after there was an increase almost equal to baseline levels for both groups. The Nd:Yag laser associated with convencional treatment promoted bacterial reduction on class II furcation immediately after its application.

  • IPEN-DOC 04452

    KOGLER, V.L.; MAIO, M.; LAGE-MARQUES, J.L.; ZEZELL, D.M. . Carbon dioxide laser or cold scalpel on the removal of gingival melanin pigmentation: comparative study. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 90-90, 2004.

    Abstract: Melanin pigmentation is the result of melanin granules produced by melanocytes present in the basal layer of the oral epithelium. Gingival physiological melanin pigmentation is symmetric and persistent, may cause esthetic problems especially in individuals with a gummy smile. Various techniques have been described for the removal of melanin pigmentation from the gingival epithelium and partial thin connective tissue, as chemical agents, cryosurgery, surgery and gingival grafts. Recently, lasers systems have been used to coagulate and vaporize cells, promoting controlled gingival ablation. This study compares clinical efficiency to removal gingival melanin pigmentation in 20 patients with dioxide carbon laser, and 20 patients with cold scalpel during 30 days after surgery. A dioxide carbon laser (output = 5W; superpulse = 0,5s; spot size = 2,5mm defocused; focal distance = 5,5cm, Intensity = 102 W/cm2) was irradiated on gingival mucosal surface. Both techniques presented epithelialization in 15 days. Both systems are considered effective for removal melanin pigments. Patient's evaluation with postoperative pain found the carbon dioxide laser technique superior to the cold scalpel one. After 30 days, the repigmentation occured in 45% of the dioxide carbon laser patients, and 80% of the cold scalpel patients.

  • IPEN-DOC 03452

    FARHART, P.B.A.; TANJI, E.Y.; FARHAT, R.P.; ZEZELL, D.M. ; MIYAKAWA, W.; NOGUEIRA, G.E.C.. Model of thermal and optical effects in dental pulp during the neodymium and diode lasers irradiation. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 90-90, 2004.

    Abstract: Applications of high intensity lasers in the enamel and dentine can produce adverse thermal effects into the pulp. Since the evaluation thermal effects into the intact pulp is not a solved problem, extracted teeth models have been used frequently. Current models, however, simulate only tooth thermal properties, not taking the remaining radiation in the pulp chamber into account. The aim of this study was to verify if the remaining radiation from neodymium and diode lasers that reach the pulp chamber, at the models using extracted bovine teeth, can causes local thermal effects. For this purpose, two models were developed using extracted bovine teeth with their pulp chambers filled with: water (model 1) and with an optical absorbent (model 2). Models were radiated with 1 W. The obtained results show that, for both lasers, the temperature rise in model 2 pulp chamber is: i) up to 11% higher than in the model 1 when the enamel is radiated and ii) up to 37% higher than in the model 1 when dentine is radiated (1 mm from the pulp). Thus, remaining radiation into the pulp is relevant for the above mentioned lasers and doses.

  • IPEN-DOC 01816

    THEODORO, L.H.; GARCIA, V.G.; ZEZELL, D.M. ; HAYPEK, P.; BACHMANN, L. ; SAMPAIO, J.E.C.. Effect of Er:YAG and diode lasers in the adhesion of blood components and in the morphology of irradiated root surfaces. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 89-89, 2004.

    Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the adhesion of blood components on root surfaces irradiated with Er:YAG (2.94??m) and GaAlAs Diode (808 nm) lasers and these effects on irradiated root surfaces. It was obtained 100 samples of human teeth. They were scaled and divided into five groups of 20 samples each: G1 (Control); G2 -Er:YAG laser (7.6 J/cm2); G3 - Er:YAG laser (12.9 J/cm2); G4 -Diode laser (90 J/cm2) and G5 - Diode laser (108 J/cm2). After these treatments were conducted, 10 samples of each group received a blood tissue, and the reminiscent 10 samples did not receive such treatment. After laboratorial treatments the samples were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. The results have shown that there were no significant differences between the Control Group and the groups treated with Er:YAG laser (p=0,9633 and 0,6229); G4 and G5 were less effective than the Control Group and the Er:YAG laser groups (p<0,01). No proposed treatment increased the adhesion of blood components in a significant way when compared to the Control Group; although the Er:YAG laser did not interfere in the adhesion of blood components it caused more changes on the root surface, while the Diode laser inhibited the adhesion.

  • IPEN-DOC 01757

    EDUARDO, L.R.P.; RIBEIRO, M.S. ; DUARTE, M.; ZEZELL, D.M. . Low level laser therapy in treatment of TMJ and masticator muscles disease: biometrical and pain evaluation. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 87-87, 2004.

    Abstract: A sample of 11 patients showing temporomandibular joint disease, in one or both sides, was selected. Clinical examinations were performed on patients to define which side was the most compromised by the disease. Only the worst side was chosen to be treated by the laser therapy. The Laser Unit used was a diode laser (AlGaAs) in which the wavelength was 810 nm (infra-red spectrum). Irradiations were done in tree points of TMJ, with 22,5 J/cm2; two points in the masseter muscle, with 15 J/cm2; and tree points in the temporal muscle, with 7,5 J/cm2. All points were irradiated for 30 seconds. The other side, of lesser complaint received a sham therapy. Treatment was done during two weeks, tree irradiation with 48 hours interval in the first week, and two irradiations with the same interval in the second week. Patients reported improvement in relation to the level of pain, mainly after the forth irradiation, and the level of pain decreased until the last day of treatment. In relation to the degree of mouth opening, the majority of patients showed a significant increase, mainly after the fifth day of irradiation.

  • IPEN-DOC 01717

    FREITAS, A.Z. ; ZEZELL, D.M. ; RIBEIRO, A.C.; GOMES, A.S.L.; VIEIRA, N.D. . Imagin carious human dental tissue with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 79-79, 2004.

    Abstract: Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) used in this study, is a new non invasive optical detection technique. The OCT system is based on a Michelson interferometer, that generates a crosssectional image of the teeth with resolution up to 2 microns. The buccal surface from the third molar teeth was used to induce caries like lesions. This surface was coated with an acid resistant nail varnish except a small window. The pH demineralizationremineralization cycling model was used to produce the lesions. This cycle was repeated for 9 days and remained in the remineralizing solution for 2 days. The OCT system was implemented by using an ultrashort pulse laser (Ti:Al2O3@830nm) with 50fs of pulse width and average power of 80mW. The laser beam was focused into the teeth providing a lateral resolution of 10 microns. Image was produced with a lateral and axial scans steps of 10 microns. After analyzing the surface by OCT it was possible to produce a tomogram of dentine-enamel junction and it was compared with the histological image. This OCT system accurately depicts dental tissue and it was able to detect early caries in its structure, providing a powerful contactless high resolution 3D images of lesions.

  • IPEN-DOC 01531

    BACHMANN, L. ; DIEBOLDER, R.; HIBST, R.; ZEZELL, D.M. . Changes in chemical composition and collagen structure of dentin tissue after erbium laser irradiation. Brazilian Dental Journal, v. 15, Special issue, p. 78-78, 2004.

    Abstract: The erbium laser light has a great affinity to the water molecule, which is present in great quantity in biological hard tissues. The objective of this work is to identify chemical changes by infrared spectroscopy of irradiated dentin by an Er:YAG - 2.94μm laser. The irradiation was performed with fluences between 0.365 J/cm2 and 1.94 J/cm2. For the infrared analysis a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer was used. After the irradiation were observed: loss of water, alteration of the structure and composition of the collagen and increase of the OH- radical. These alterations can be identified by a decrease of the water and OH- band between 3800-2800 cm-1, bands ascribed to collagen structure between 1400-1100 cm-1. The results show that the erbium laser changes the structure and composition of the organic matrix, OHradical and the water composition in the irradiated dentin.

  • IPEN-DOC 28465

    ETCHEBEHERE, E.; LIMA, M.; PEREIRA, L.; PAGNANO, R.; BORTOLETTI, E. ; MENGATTI, J. ; BRUNETTO, S.Q.; TAKAHASHI, M.; BRUNETTO, E.; OZELO, M.; SANTOS, A.. Knee radiosynovectomy with Sm-153 hydroxyapatite compared to Y-90 hydroxyapatite: initial results of a prospective trial. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, v. 47, Supplement 1, p. S628-S628, 2020. DOI: 10.1007/s00259-020-04988-4

    Abstract: Aim/Introduction: Introduction: The most common clinical presentation in hemophilia patients consists of hemarthrosis. Various treatment strategies aim to control hemarthrosis to prevent secondary arthropathy, among them, radiosynovectomy with Y-90 hydroxyapatite (90YHA). A few studies have shown a lower efficiency of knee radiosynovectomy with Sm-153 hydroxyapatite (153Sm- HA) compared to 90Y-HA. Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to assess the efficacy and safety of knee radiosynovectomy with 153Sm-HA compared to 90Y-HA. Materials and Methods: Forty patients were prospectively assigned to undergo knee radiosynovectomy with 153Sm- HA (19 patients) or with 90Y-HA (21 patients). The frequency of hemarthrosis episodes before and after treatment was compared. Results: The response to knee radiosynovectomy stratifying according to radiotracer showed that after 6 months the median response rate with 153Sm-HA was not significantly different from 90Y-HA (87.5% vs 80.9%; p = 0.576). However, after 12 months the median response rate of knee radiosynovectomy with 153Sm-HA was significantly better than with 90Y-HA (87.5% vs 50%; p = 0.037), respectively. The reduction of joint bleeding by at least 50%, after 12 months, was greater in the group of patients treated with 153Sm-HA compared to 90Y-HA (74% vs 52%), respectively. Conclusion: Knee radiosynovectomy with high doses of 153Sm-HA is safe, with an efficiency rate similar that is described in the literature by the 90Y-HA.

  • IPEN-DOC 28464

    RAMOS, C.; SOUZA, S.; TOBAR, N.; CASTRO, V.; FRASSON, F.; AMORIM, B.; ETCHEBEHERE, E.; LIMA, M.; MENGATTI, J. ; ARAUJO, E. ; PERINI, E. ; SOUZA, C.; LORAND-METZE, I.; SANTOS, A.; DELAMAIN, M.. Comparison of 68Ga-PSMA and 18F-FDG PET/CT uptake in different lymphoma subtypes: preliminary results. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, v. 47, Supplement 1, p. S41-S42, 2020. DOI: 10.1007/s00259-020-04988-4

    Abstract: Aim/Introduction: Few reports have documented the uptake of radiolabeled Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) in lymphomas [1,2]. It is not known how PSMA uptake varies among various histological subtypes and how it correlates with 18F-FDG uptake in lymphomas. This study aimed to compare 68Ga-PSMA and 18F-FDG in different lymphoma subtypes. Materials and Methods: Nine randomly selected patients with biopsy-proven lymphoma -median age 43 (32-70) years, 5 female - were submitted to whole-body 18F-FDG and 68Ga- PSMA PET/CT (time interval: 1-6 days between procedures). Lymphoma subtypes included: nodular-sclerosis Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL; 2 patients); diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL; 1); marginal-zone lymphoma (2); MALT lymphoma (ML; 1); follicular lymphoma (FL; 1); lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (1); and B-cell non- Hodgkin’s lymphoma, unspecified (BCNHL-U; 1). Eight patients were under initial staging, and 1 (HL) with disease relapse after treatment. Two experienced nuclear physicians analyzed the images by consensus. The intensity of tracer uptake was visually classified as marked, moderate or mild. The affected sites (lymph node chains, spleen, diffuse bone marrow involvement and non-lymphatic focal lesions) were counted in both sets of images and their respective maximum SUV (SUVmax) were measured. Results: PSMA PET/ CT was positive in all patients except for one with ML. FDG PET/CT was positive in all patients. At visual analyses, FDG uptake was higher than PSMA uptake in all patients, except for one patient with BCNHL-U (both tracers with similar low-intensity uptake). The intensity of FDG and PSMA uptake was respectively classified as marked in 3/9 and 0/8 patients, moderate in 4/9 and 1/8 and mild in 2/9 and 7/8. One patient (FL) presented a “mismatch” uptake pattern with different parts of an extensive lesion presenting predominant uptake of PSMA or FDG. Brain infiltration in one patient (DLBCL) was more easily identified on PSMA than on FDG images. FDG detected a total of 58/58 and PSMA 43/58 affected sites in all patients with a median SUVmax of respectively 5.4 (2.0-31.1) and 2.8 (1.3-5.4), p<0.0001. The median SUVs of the 43 lesions with uptake of both tracers was respectively 5.5 (2.0-28.9) and 2.8 (1.3-P5.4) for FDG and PSMA, p<0.0001. Conclusion: Distinct lymphoma subtypes present PSMA uptake, with less intensity than FDG uptake. Although PSMA uptake is usually mild, several lymphoma subtypes might cause false-positive results in PSMA PET/CT performed to assess prostate cancer.

  • IPEN-DOC 28463

    SOUZA, S.; DELAMAIN, M.; TOBAR, N.; CASTRO, V.; FRASSON, F.; AMORIM, B.; ETCHEBEHERE, E.; MARIANA, K.; MENGATTI, J. ; ARAUJO, E.B. ; PERINI, E. ; SOUZA, C. de; SANTOS, A.; LORANT-METZE, I.; RAMOS, C.. Comparison of 68ga-psma and 18f-fdg pet/ct uptake in different lymphoma. Hematology, Transfusion and Cell Therapy, v. 42, Supplement 1, p. S48-S48, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.htct.2020.09.086

    Abstract: Objective: Few reports have documented the uptake of radiolabeled Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) in lymphomas.1, [2] It is not known how PSMA uptake varies among various histological subtypes and how it correlates with 18F-FDG uptake in lymphomas. This study aimed to compare 68Ga-PSMA and 18F-FDG in different lymphoma subtypes. Methodology: Nine randomly selected patients with biopsy-proven lymphoma with a median age 43 (32–70) years, 5 female – were submitted to whole-body 18F-FDG and 68Ga – PSMA PET/CT (time interval: 1–6 days between procedures). Lymphoma subtypes included: nodular-sclerosis Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL; 2 patients); diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL; 1); marginal-zone lymphoma (2); MALT lymphoma (ML; 1); follicular lymphoma (FL; 1); lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (1); and B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, unspecified (BCNHL-U; 1). Eight patients were under initial staging and 1 (HL) with disease relapse after treatment. Two experienced nuclear physicians analyzed the images by consensus. The intensity of tracer uptake was visually classified as marked, moderate or mild. The affected sites (lymph node chains, spleen, diffuse bone marrow involvement and non-lymphatic focal lesions) were counted in both sets of images and their respective maximum SUV (SUVmax) were measured. Results: PSMA PET/CT was positive in all patients except for one with ML. FDG PET/CT was positive in all patients. At visual analyses, FDG uptake was higher than PSMA uptake in all patients, except for one patient with BCNHL-U (both tracers with similar low-intensity uptake). The intensity of FDG and PSMA uptake was respectively classified as marked in 3/9 and 0/8 patients, moderate in 4/9 and 1/8 and mild in 2/9 and 7/8. One patient (FL) presented a “mismatch” uptake pattern with different parts of an extensive lesion presenting predominant uptake of PSMA or FDG. Brain infiltration in one patient (DLBCL) was more easily identified on PSMA than on FDG images. FDG detected a total of 58/58 and PSMA 43/58 affected sites in all patients with a median SUVmax of respectively 5.4 (2.0–31.1) and 2.8 (1.3–5.4), p < 0.0001. The median SUVs of the 43 lesions with uptake of both tracers was respectively 5.5 (2.0–28.9) and 2.8 (1.3–5.4) for FDG and PSMA, p < 0.0001. Conclusion: Distinct lymphoma subtypes present PSMA uptake, with less intensity than FDG uptake. Although PSMA uptake is usually mild, several lymphoma subtypes might cause false-positive results in PSMA PET/CT performed to assess prostate cancer.

  • IPEN-DOC 28462

    ANGELOCCI, L. ; NOGUEIRA, B.R. ; SOUZA, C.D. de ; ZEITUNI, C.A. ; ROSTELATO, M.E.C.M. . Assessing Ir-192 as an alternative to I-125 in ophthalmic treatment. Radiotherapy and Oncology, v. 152, Supplement 1, p. S735-S736, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/S0167-8140(21)01402-X

    Abstract: Purpose or Objective: Brachytherapy sources for ocular melanoma usually contain Co-60, I-125, Pd-103 or Ru/Rh-106 as radionuclides. Ir-192 is not a preconized radioactive material for this purpose, although it is used for other brachytherapy applications. Higher mean energy from Ir-192 emission (ca. 380 keV) may be a reason for the preference of I-125 (35 keV) or Pd-103 (21 keV) over it, since low penetration is desired on the small structures of the human eye. This is not, however, an excluding criterion, considering Co-60 and Ru/Rh-106 have even higher mean energies. The demand in Brazil for lower-cost seeds to treat ocular melanoma lead to the development of an Ir-192 seed to make treatment more accessible, but since it is not used as an ophthalmic brachytherapy source, before its dosimetry is considered, one should care about the possibility of using it over more stablished materials. Considering this, the aim of this work is to assess the possibility of using Ir-192 seeds as ophthalmic brachytherapy sources by comparing some dosimetric parameters of a new seed model with the most stablished I-125 seed in literature, OncoSeed 6711. Material and Methods: As an initial study on the topic, this work relies only on Monte-Carlo simulations using MCNP4C transport code. Parameters analyzed are air-kerma strength, dose-rate constant and depth-dose curve, attention given to points within the human eye dimensions. The medium considered was homogeneous water, as it is a good approximation to the eye tissues in terms of composition and density and allows for future comparisons with TG-43 based calculations. OncoSeed 6711 is not produced anymore, but its long term as the reference source for dosimetry was considered. A 20 mm COMS ophthalmic applicator was also modeled and considered to be fully loaded with each seed model to compare the same parameters at a realistically clinical approach. Results: As expected, due to the higher energy of the Ir-192 emission spectrum, dose fall-off on the transversal axis of the seeds is less pronounced for the new seed model. The steeper dose gradient for I-125 is also visible on the doserate constant value. The effect of using a COMS applicator only strengthens this characteristic. Depth-dose curves were calculated up to the distance of 5 cm, both for a single seed and for an applicator fully loaded with 24 seeds. All the eye components relevant for dosimetry are located within this range, like the cells of the crystallin and the optical nerve. Conclusion: If one expects to use Ir-192 as an alternative to I-125 in ophthalmic cancer treatment, at least the dosimetry following TG-43 protocol should be carried with utmost attention, as undesirable dose to healthy nearby tissues is unavoidable. Crafting a different applicator most suited for this radionuclide is a possibility that can be taken into account. Another recommendation is to go beyond TG-43 water-based protocol and actually estimate dose to relevant eye components.

  • IPEN-DOC 28461

    BELLEZZO, M. ; FONSECA, G.P.; VONCKEN, R.; VERRIJSSEN, A.; VAN BEVEREN, C.; ROELOFS, E.; YORIYAZ, H. ; RENIERS, B.; VAN LIMBERGEN, E.J.; BARBEE, M.; VERHAEGEN, F.. MAASTRO applicator, a novel rectal applicator for contact brachytherapy with 192Ir HDR sources. Radiotherapy and Oncology, v. 152, Supplement 1, p. S1102-S1103, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/S0167-8140(21)01990-3

    Abstract: Purpose or Objective: The standard care for rectal cancer includes surgery, which may be avoided if complete response is achieved, e.g. with chemoradiotherapy (EBCRT) or external beam radiotherapy EBRT, adopting a watch and wait strategy. Studies report a local regrowth reduction from 30% (EBCRT alone) to 11% when EBCRT is associated with a radiation boost using 50 kV x-rays (CXB), technique that allows a high dose delivery to a highly selective volume, allowing preservation of organs at risk (OAR) and low toxicity. However, CXB is not widely adopted due to its low costeffectiveness. Hence, the MAASTRO applicator was developed to deliver a dose distribution similar to those generated by CXB devices, but using HDR 192Ir sources, as a cost-effective alternative to CXB, with possibility of integration to treatment planning systems (TPS). Material and Methods: Fig 1-a shows the applicator design, a cylindrical applicator with 5 channels and a slanted edge, using its tip. Results: Due to the applicator geometry, the most distal position of the source in each channel doesn’t reach the sharp edge of the applicator, resulting in an effective treatment surface (high dose region shown in Fig 1 a and b) of approximately 20 x 20 mm2, which is smaller than the contact surface. The resulting dose falloff is steeper than the one resulting from the P50 with a 22 mm applicator. With the dose falloff normalized at 2mm, the relative dose values delivered at depths of 0, 2, 5 and 10 mm are, respectively, 130, 100, 70 and 43% for the P50 and 140, 100, 67 and 38% for the applicator. The time required to deliver an average dose of 32 Gy to the treatment surface of the applicator is 5m30s for a 40700 U source (new source) and 8m30s for a 20350 U source (source to be replaced), including the time required to perform obstruction verification before irradiation. The applicator delivers a high dose to a small target volume while the lateral shielding spares normal tissues in all directions other than the contact surface. Conclusion: The MAASTRO applicator was designed to deliver dose distributions similar to those of CXB devices using 192Ir HDR sources. The applicator has the advantage of TPS integration, increasing the degrees of freedom to modulate the dose distribution.

  • IPEN-DOC 27993

    ZANINI, NATHALIA ; ZAMATARO, CLAUDIA B. ; RABELO, THAIS F. ; JUVINO, AMANDA C. ; KUCHAR, NIELSEN G. ; CASTRO, PEDRO ; ANA, PATRICIA da; ZEZELL, DENISE . Analysis of ceramic laminates removal with Er,Cr:YSGG laser by optical coherence tomography. Photobiomodulation, Photomedicine, and Laser Surgery, v. 37, n. 10, p. A22-A22, 2019. DOI: 10.1089/photob.2019.29013.abstracts

    Abstract: Porcelain laminated veneers have been widely used. For wear of hard tissue such as enamel and dentin, the diamond rotary instrument is the most traditional, but the laser has become recently used to remove aesthetic facets. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) used as an optical biopsy, is important for morphological analysis and attenuation coefficient is related to the property of the photons to be scattered by the samples. After approval by the Ethics Committee, the present study investigated the detachment of 30 ceramic E-max fragments cemented in human dental enamel of dimensions 3mm x 3mm x 0.7mm with 3 types of resin cements, RelxY Veneer, Relx U200 and Variolink Veneer. The samples (Enamel + Ceramic Fragment) were randomly distributed in the 3 groups and cemented according to the manufacturer. After that, they were prepared for irradiation with the Er,Cr: YSSG laser under predetermined conditions (3.5 and 3W, 20Hz, 60% water and 40% air flow). OCT analysis was done before and after irradiation. We observed that themorphological changes of the enamel surface showed an increased surface area due to the cement remaining in the enamel.We concluded that the Er, Cr: YSGG laser, when used in the irradiation protocol tested, seems to be a safe tool for the removal of laminates.

  • IPEN-DOC 27992

    RABELO, THAIS F. ; ZAMATARO, CLAUDIA B. ; ZANINI, NATHALIA ; JUVINO, AMANDA C. ; KUCHAR, NIELSEN G. ; CASTRO, PEDRO A.A. ; ZEZELL, DENISE M. . Removal of laminates with Er,Cr:YSGG laser from dental enamel submitted to gamma radiation. Photobiomodulation, Photomedicine, and Laser Surgery, v. 37, n. 10, p. A21-A21, 2019. DOI: 10.1089/photob.2019.29013.abstracts

    Abstract: Background: Modern Dentistry is characterized by the search for aesthetic perfection in the smile. Many efforts are made regarding procedures related to manufacturing, cementing, maintenance and removal of ceramic laminates. The laser removal of laminates has become more frequent when the aesthetical procedures needs to be replaced. On the other hand, the head and neck cancer treatment causes comorbidities in the buccal environment when laminates are in place. Objective: To evaluate in vitro the removal of ceramic fragments by means of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation, after gamma radiation. Methods: 20 Lithium disilicate veneers were cemented with Variolink to human dental enamel and then samples were irradiated with 0.07 kGy. After gamma irradiation, the laminates removal with Er,Cr:YSGG laser was performed. The control group was not subjected to gamma radiation. Dental enamel samples were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Surface Microhardness Loss (SMH). Results: SEM has shown that less cement was found after removal of the facets in gamma irradiated group when compared to the control. For both groups there was alteration of the SMH possibly due to the use of the adhesive system. When performed intra group analysis, the sample being its own control of baseline in the FTIR analysis, there were no band shifts or formation of new compounds on the surface of human dental enamel. Conclusions: The Er,Cr:YSGG laser is an effective alternative for laminates removal in human dental enamel even when it is subjected to gamma radiation.

  • IPEN-DOC 27991

    KUCHAR, NIELSEN G. ; ZAMATARO, CLAUDIA B. ; RABELO, THAIS ; JUVINO, AMANDA ; ZANINI, NATHALIA ; CASTRO, PEDRO ; ZEZELL, DENISE M. . Calcium analysis of gamma sterilized human dentin submmited to Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation. Photobiomodulation, Photomedicine, and Laser Surgery, v. 37, n. 10, p. A18-A19, 2019. DOI: 10.1089/photob.2019.29013.abstracts

    Abstract: Studies report that gamma radiation changes the oral cavity of patients submitted to radiotherapy. These changes include xerostomia, resulting in an unsaturation of calciumand phosphate in the oral cavity. However, human enamel samples isolated from the altered oral environmentwhen irradiatedwithgamma radiation at doses of up to 25kGy (much higher than radiotherapy doses) were shown to have undergone no changes in molecular hardness or micro surface. After approval of the Research Ethics Committee, 20 human dentin samples were evaluated before and after irradiation, split randomly into control group (n = 10) and irradiated group (n = 10) treated with 25.0 kGy at the Co60 multipurpose irradiator and irradiated with Er,Cr:YSGG laser in the parameters: 8.5 J/cm2 in the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), % surface Microhardness loss and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). At the end, acidic biopsies were performed to quantify the concentration of calcium present in the samples. In the results of FTIR analysis differences were found only in the bands of organic content and in the inorganic content, difference were not found between before and after irradiations. The EDS and % Surface Microhardness loss analysis corroborates these findings, as well as no significant loss of the Calcium content before and after their radiation with Co60 at 25 kGy and with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser. These findings lead us to a new hypothesis of behavior of the hydroxyapatite crystal submitted to the gamma irradiation.

    Palavras-Chave: teeth; radiotherapy; gamma radiation; radiation doses; calcium

  • IPEN-DOC 27990

    ZAMATARO, CLAUDIA B. ; RABELO, THAIS F. ; ZANINI, NATHALIA ; JUVINO, AMANDA C. ; KUCHAR, NIELSEN G. ; CASTRO, PEDRO A.L. ; ANA, PATRICIA A. da; ZEZELL, DENISE M. . Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation associated to fluoride for in situ model using gamma sterilized dentin and enamel. Photobiomodulation, Photomedicine, and Laser Surgery, v. 37, n. 10, p. A13-A13, 2019. DOI: 10.1089/photob.2019.29013.abstracts

    Abstract: The in situ intraoral model uses human dental enamel samples (HDE) in order to analyse the de-remineralization processes using the buccal environment without interfering into the patients’ natural dentition. The main ethical concern from this model is the biosafety. Gamma radiation is a very efficient sterilization method that is not expected to alter the mineral content of the hard tissues, avoiding biases in the results. Thus 40 HDE samples were irradiated through a source of 60Co multipurpose irradiator aiming complete sterilization (25 KGy/h) with the purpose of accumulating the native plaque on them at an in situ study. An Er,Cr:YSGG laser was used alone and in combination with the topical applications of: 1-dentifrice (1,100 lg F-/g) or 2-APF (12,300 lg F-/g). Morphological analyses were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), determination of alkali-soluble fluoride concentration by specific ion electrode and microhardness determination. Then, the 15 volunteers used palatal devices containing previously treated HDE samples and remained using F dentifrice. The FTIR findings established that gamma radiation could be used aiming HDE sterilization. The Knoop hardness number was within the range of that of natural dentin of human origin. X-ray fluorescence shows that irradiated dentin has great similarity with natural dentin from the point of view of chemical composition. SEM analyses showed that there was no thermal damage or interprismatic morphological changes in the hydroxyapatite structure of human dental dentin outside the buccal environment when using doses of gamma irradiation up to 25 kGy.

    Palavras-Chave: teeth; enamels; sterilization; lasers; irradiation

  • IPEN-DOC 27989

    JUVINO, AMANDA C. ; ZAMATARO, CLAUDIA B. ; RABELO, THAIS F. ; KUCHAR, NIELSEN G. ; ZANINI, NATHALIA ; CASTRO, PEDRO ; ZEZELL, DENISE . In vitro determination of the critical pH demineralization of human dental enamel irradiated with Nd:YAG laser associated with fluoridated product. Photobiomodulation, Photomedicine, and Laser Surgery, v. 37, n. 10, p. A8-A9, 2019. DOI: 10.1089/photob.2019.29013.abstracts

    Abstract: The use of fluoride products associated with high intensity laser irradiation are beneficial for dental caries prevention because it increases the surface area, improving the formation of fluorapatite (FA), which gives greater acid-resistance of enamel against bacterial acids. The objective of this study is to determine the critical pH of dental enamel treated with acid fluoride phosphate 12,300 lF-/g (APF) and Nd:YAG laser 84 J/cm2, as there is no precedent to determine this pH. The study consisted of 4 groups (n = 15): G1: Negative Control; G2: APF; G3: Nd:YAG; G4: APF + Nd:YAG. Each group was randomized into three subgroups (n = 5) for pH cycling. The cycling was designed to simulate three conditions: below critical pH of enamel hydroxyapatite (pH 5.0); pH below critical for hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite (pH 4.5); condition further below the critical situation to investigate extent of acid resistance of the enamel (pH 4.0). The samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and solutions were quantified fluoride (specific ion electrode) and phosphate (colorimetric method). In SEM and FTIR (phosphate band) at pH 5, only the APF and APF + Nd:YAG groups did not present demineralization. At pH 4.5, only the APF + Nd:YAG group was integrated. At pH 4, APF + Nd:YAG showed signs of mild demineralization while the other groups showed aggressive signals. It is concluded that the irradiated fluorapatite has critical dissolution pH different from fluorapatite formed only with the application of fluorine.

    Palavras-Chave: teeth; enamels; fluorides; phosphates; ph value; laser radiation

  • IPEN-DOC 27968

    CARDOSO, ELISABETH C.L. ; PARRA, DUCLERC F. ; SCAGLIUSI, SANDRA R. ; LUGAO, ADEMAR B. . Influence of particle size of bio-calcium carbonate used as reinforcement of PBAT/PLA bio-based foams compatibilized with ionizing radiation. Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation, v. 10, p. 42-42, 2019.

    Abstract: Bio-filler from eggshells as reinforcement of bio-based polymers are based on their principle benefits such as good strength and stiffness besides being an environmental friendly, degradable and renewable material. Eggshell is an agricultural waste largely considered as garbage and discarded mostly because it contributes to pollution. Biodegradable polymers as PLA (poli-lactic acid) and PBAT (butylene adipate co-terephthalate) are thermoplastics which can be processed using most conventional polymer processing methods. PLA is high in strength and modulus (63 MPa and 3.4 GPa, respectively) but brittle (strain at break 3.8%) while PBAT is flexible and tough (strain at break ~710%). In order to reduce interfacial tension exhibited by PLA/PBAT blend, compatibilization is fundamental: herein it was used as compatibilizing agent PLA previously e-beam irradiated at 150 kGy: ionizing radiation induces compatibilization by free radicals, improving the dispersion and adhesion of blend phases, without the use of chemical additives and at room temperature. PLA/PBAT, 65/35 blend with bio-filler, from avian eggs, of 38 and 75 µm particle size were prior homogenized in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder and further foamed in a mono-screw extruder, by using CO2 as Physical Blowing Agent (PBA). Characterizations involved: Melt Index, DSC, TGA, FTIR, SEM, XRD and mechanical essays.

    Palavras-Chave: calcium carbonates; biodegradation; eggs; polymers; fillers

  • IPEN-DOC 27967

    PARRA, DUCLERC F. ; SILVA, ORELIO L. da ; KOMATSU, LUIZ G. ; CARDOSO, ELIZABETH C.L. ; LUGAO, ADEMAR B. . Nanocomposites foams of polypropilene modified by ionizing radiation containing CaCo3/ag° nanoparticles of bio-calcium carbonate-study of bactericidal effect. Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation, v. 10, p. 41-41, 2019.

    Abstract: This paper presents a study of high melting strengh polypropylene (HMSPP) foams by gamma irradiation with insertion of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) adsorbed in carrier of CaCO3 (natural source) aiming bactericidal effect. The use of silver (Ag°) gives important antibacterial property since silver is highly toxic against bacterae. The HMSPP matrix was processed in a twin screw extruder under CO2 atmosphere and polypropylene nanocomposites (HMSPP-AgNC) were obtained in different concentrations of silver. The material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), cytotoxicity assay and reduction colony-forming-unit (CFU). The analyzed foams showed spherical clusters and homogeneous regions with good distribution of the silver nanoparticles. Furthermore, the HMSPP@AgNCs foams exhibited a antibacterial efficiency against E. coli and S. aureus due to the presence of the biocidal silver nanoparticles.

    Palavras-Chave: germicides; sterilization; foams; polypropylene; gamma radiation; calcium carbonates

  • IPEN-DOC 27820

    PETERSEN, ALAN; TACCHEO, STEFANO; MIROV, SERGEY; NILSSON, JOHAN; PASK, HELEN; SARACENO, CLARA; WETTER, NIKLAUS ; WU, RUIFEN. Focus issue introduction: Advanced Solid-State Lasers 2020. Optics Express, v. 29, n. 6, p. 8365-8367, 2021. DOI: 10.1364/OE.423636

    Abstract: This Joint Issue of Optics Express and Optical Materials Express features 15 articles written by authors who participated in the international online conference Advanced Solid State Lasers held 13–16 October, 2020. This review provides a summary of the conference and these articles from the conference which sample the spectrum of solid state laser theory and experiment, from materials research to sources and from design innovation to applications.

    Palavras-Chave: lasers; solid state lasers; radiation sources; meetings

  • IPEN-DOC 27819

    PETERSEN, ALAN; TACCHEO, STEFANO; MIROV, SERGEY; NILSSON, JOHAN; PASK, HELEN; SARACENO, CLARA; WETTER, NIKLAUS ; WU, RUIFEN. Focus issue introduction: Advanced Solid-State Lasers 2020. Optical Materials Express, v. 11, n. 4, p. 952-954, 2021. DOI: 10.1364/OME.423641

    Abstract: This Joint Issue of Optics Express and Optical Materials Express features 15 articles written by authors who participated in the international online conference Advanced Solid State Lasers held 13–16 October, 2020. This review provides a summary of the conference and these articles from the conference which sample the spectrum of solid state laser theory and experiment, from materials research to sources and from design innovation to applications.

    Palavras-Chave: lasers; solid state lasers; radiation sources; meetings

  • IPEN-DOC 27604

    PARRA, DUCLERC F. ; SANTOS, VINICIUS J. dos ; TAMIÃO, ANGELICA . Development of poly (n-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) hydrogels containing nanosilver and laponite clay for modulation of neomycin. Journal of Astrophysics & Aerospace Technology, v. 8, n. 2, p. 3-3, 2020.

    Abstract: These Biomaterials widely used in biomedicine as wound dressings are composed by hydrogels. They offer ideal conditions for wound treatment, such as maintaining the wound environment humid, autolytic debridement, accelerated healing, ability to absorb large amounts of fluids without losing their physical integrity, drug release in a controlled manner protecting infected wounds that are constantly exposed to environment contaminated with microorganisms. These dressings are formed by one or more polymeric components which, when cross-linked, form three-dimensional networks. They have a high degree of flexibility that is very similar to natural living tissues. The general objective of this work was to synthesize by radiation hydrogel membranes containing PVP, PEG, agar, RD laponite in a neomycin and nanosilver release system that promotes a synergistic action between these two antimicrobial agents. Membranes with different concentrations of polymer matrix / clay were produced by irradiation at a dose of 25 kGy of gamma 60Co source, and characterized by techniques: swelling analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile tests, parallel plate rheometry. It can be seen that G 'and G "are approximately parallel within the studied range. G 'is greater than G' 'and both showed little frequency dependence. This performance is the expected for the gels, in which the elastic behavior of the sample predominates over its viscous behavior. The clay-polymer interactions increases gel cross-linking, which provides an increase in their mechanical properties. In parallel, nanoparticles of silver coupled to clay (Laponite) were synthesized in which their properties were verified by means of UV-Vis, MET, ICP-OES and microbiological activity. The study of the microbiological activity of AgNPs-Laponite nanoparticles on the reduction of microorganisms in culture indicated that most of the nanoparticles, synthesized from the reduction of silver ions on the surface of Laponite, have activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans.

    Palavras-Chave: wounds; hydrogels; pvp; healing; biological recovery

  • IPEN-DOC 27563

    CARDOSO, ELIZABETH C.L. ; PARRA, DUCLERC F. ; SCAGLIUSI, SANDRA R. ; LUGAO, ADEMAR B. . Study of PBAT/PLA bio-based blends reinforced with chicken eggshell nano powder compatibilized with ionizing radiation. Astrophysics & Aerospace Technology, v. 8, n. 2, p. 11-11, 2020.

    Abstract: Eggshell is a solid waste, with production of several tons per day and it is mostly sent to landfills at a high management cost. A few used of eggshell include: fertilizing the garden, cleaning pots and pans, seed starter, feeding birds, making bone broth, etc… Nevertheless, chicken eggshell biowaste has recently been used to substitute calcium carbonate (CaCO3), due to its reinforcing property and low price. It is economically viable to transform eggshell waste to acquire new values, transforming it into a bioplastic: a biodegradable polymer made from bio-mass. The surprising strength of eggshells endorses their application for reinforcement of biodegradable polymers herein studied: PLA (poly-lactic acid) and PBAT (butylene adipate co-terephthalate). PLA is derived from renewable sourced: polylactic acid plastics are sturdier and capable to be blend with conventional petroleum polymers; nevertheless, they exhibit a narrow process window and low thermal stability, besides an inherent high cost. PBAT, as PLA, is a biodegradable aliphatic polyester, although a synthetic polymer based on fossil resources. By incorporating PBAT in PLA it is expected to improve flexibility of PBAT/PLA blend. Previous studies using PBAT/PLA, 50/50 blends containing 15% of chicken eggshell 125 µm improved mechanical behavior of net blends: values for both force and strain practically doubled, proving the effective reinforcement action of calcium carbonate extracted from eggshells. Conventional polymer processing methods can be used in both PLA and PBAT compositions. Due to common incompatibility between PLA and PBAT, considering their extreme glass transition temperatures: 62 º C and – 30 º C, respectively, it is required a compatibilizer to accomplish or increase their interaction. Herein it was used PLA previously e-beam radiated at 150 kGy, as compatibilizing agent: ionizing radiation induces compatibilization by free radicals, improving the dispersion and adhesion of blend phases, without the use of chemical additives and at room temperature. Herein there were prepared bio-composite PBAT/PLA 82/18 blends with 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 % of eggshell nano-powder, 161 nm, in average, and 5.0 % of PLA 150 kGy e-beam radiated were homogeneized in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. Subsequent investigations included: Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Fourier Transmittance Infrared (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Tensile Strength and Elongation at Break

    Palavras-Chave: eggs; chickens; fertilizers; solid wastes; ionizing radiations; nanopowders

  • IPEN-DOC 27446

    VILLAS BOAS, CRISTIAN A.W. ; MENGATTI, JAIR ; PASSOS, PRISCILA ; VIEIRA, DANIEL ; ARAUJO, ELAINE B. de . In vitro response of 177Lu-PSMA-617 with two different specific activities. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, v. 61, supplement 1, 2020.

    Abstract: Introduction: PSMA-617 radiolabeled with lutetium-177 has shown good results in compassionate studies around the world. Being a receptor-specific radiopharmaceutical, the specific activity (SA) of the preparation may represent an important factor for therapeutic efficacy. Lutetium-177 can be produced by two different routes: with ytterbium-176 (Non-carrier-added or NCA) and with lutetium-176 (Carrier-added or CA). The SA (MBq/ug) of the labeled PSMA varies accordingly to each lutetium. For NCA lutetium, the radiolabeling procedure is based on the SA of 74 MBq/ug. When the radiolabeling is performed with CA lutetium, SA is determined by the molar ratio of 2.1:1 (PSMA moles/lutetium moles declared in the certificate), resulting in lower SA than NCA. This work evaluated the influence of specific activity of 177Lu-PSMA-617 on in vitro specific binding assays (saturation, competition and internalization). Materials and Methods: Radiolabeling of PSMA-617 (ABX, Germany) with lutetium-177 was performed in heating block at 90°C for 30 minutes with sodium ascorbate (0.5 M pH 4.7) as buffer. For NCA lutetium (JSC, Russia) the radiopharmaceutical specific activity was 74 MBq/ug. For CA lutetium (IDB, Netherlands), the specific activity was 41 MBq/ug. The radiochemical purity was analyzed with HPLC. For all experiments, 6-well plates were used for adherence cells with 200,000 LNCaP per well. Molar concentration of saturation curves experiments were 0.01; 0.05; 0.6; 1.5; 3.0 and 3.5 for CA lutetium and 0.1; 0.6; 1.5; 2.0; 2.5 and 3.0 for NCA lutetium. After 1 hour of incubation at 8 ºC, supernatant was removed, then washed with PBS (phosphate buffer saline) and finally cells were burst with NaOH 1 M, and activity was measured in gama counter; the experiments were performed in octuplicate. Competition experiments were performed adding in all wells 5 nM of radiolabeled PSMA-617 and in the competition well (non-specific binding) were added an excess of 15 times (76 ug) of non radiolabeled PSMA-617. After 1 hour of incubation at 8 ºC, supernatant was removed, then washed with PBS and finally cells were burst with NaOH 1 M, and activity was measured in gama counter, these experiments were performed in triplicate. The specific binding was obtained by the difference between total binding and non-specific binding. Internalization experiments were performed at Kd of NCA and CA lutetium. After 1 hour of incubation at 37 ºC, supernatant was removed, washed with PBS, then washed again with 0.05 M glycine solution pH 2.8 and finally cells were burst with NaOH 1 M. Activity was measured in gama counter, these experiment were performed in sextuplicate. Results and discussion: The radiochemical purity were 98% and 99% for labeling with NCA and CA lutetium, respectively. Saturation curve assay with NCA lutetium shown a Kd of 0.7 ± 0.15 nM and a Bmax of 857 ± 55.79 pMol/ng, and with CA lutetium resulted in a Kd of 1.71 ± 0.45 nM and a Bmax of 1156 ± 113.8 pMol/ng. The variation between both Kd curves were statistically different (P value = 0.0058). Competition assay demonstrated an effective blocking for both types of lutetium, for NCA unpaired T test shown a P value of 0.0011. For CA lutetium, the unpaired test disclosed a P value of 0.0258. The comparison between both results revealed a P value of 0.01 at the specific binding. Internalization assay shown for both types of lutetium similar results, 27.1 ± 2.45% and 30.6 ± 4.97%, for CA and NCA lutetium, respectively, and was not statistically significant (P value = 0.17). Conclusions: These experiments demonstrated that the type of lutetium (CA or NCA) directly affects in vitro binding of 177Lu-PSMA-617 to receptors expressed in LNCaP cells. It was statistically demonstrated that the higher specific activity of 177Lu-PSMA-617, more radiolabeled peptide can bind to cells at saturation and competition assays.

    Palavras-Chave: radiopharmaceuticals; lutetium 177; therapy; in vitro

  • IPEN-DOC 27445

    COELHO, GUILHERME R.; PREZOTTO NETO, JOSE P. ; BARBOSA, FERNANDA C.; SANTOS, RAFAEL S.; BRIGATTE, PATRICIA; SPENCER, PATRICK J. ; SAMPAIO, SANDRA C.; D'AMELIO, FERNANDA; PIMENTA, DANIEL C.; SCIANI, JULIANA M.. Hypanus americanus mucus: a new point of view about stingray immunity and toxins. Toxicon, v. 177, Supplement 1, p. S34-S34, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.12.047

    Abstract: Fish skin plays important biological roles, such as the control of the osmotic pressure gradient, protection against mechanical forces and microorganism infections. The mucus, on the other hand, is a rich and complex fluid, important for the fish acting as innate immunity system, swimming and nutrition. The elasmobranch epidermis is characterized mainly by mucus secretory cells, and marine stingrays have already been described to present secretory glands spread throughout the body. Little is known about the biochemical composition of the stingray mucus, but recent studies denoted the importance of mucus in the envenomation process. Stingrays venom are largely studied due the human medical importance of envenoming caused by sting puncture, that evolve with local inflammation and necrosis, and these toxic events can be correlated to the chemical composition of the sting skin, according to the literature. Aiming to analyse the mucus composition, a new non-invasive mucus collection method was developed that focused on peptides and proteins, and biological assays were performed to analyze preliminary toxic and immune activities of the Hypanus americanus mucus. Pathophysiological characterization showed the presence of peptidases on mucus, as well that the induction of edema and leukocyte recruitment in mice. The fractionated mucus improved phagocytosis on macrophages and showed antimicrobial activity against T. rubrum, C. neoformans and C. albicans in vitro. The proteomic analyses showed the presence of immune-related proteins like actin, histones, hemoglobin, and ribosomal proteins. This protein pattern is similar to those reported for other fish mucus and stingray venom. This is the first report depicting the Hypanus stingray mucus composition, highlighting its biochemical composition and importance for the stingray immune system and the possible role on the envenomation process.

    Palavras-Chave: fishes; skin; venoms; therapeutic uses

  • IPEN-DOC 27444

    SABINO, CAETANO P.; SELLERA, FABIO P.; SALES-MEDINA, DOUGLAS F.; MACHADO, RAFAEL R.G.; DURIGON, EDISON L.; FREITAS-JUNIOR, LUCIO H.; RIBEIRO, MARTHA S. . UV-C (254 nm) lethal doses for SARS-CoV-2. Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy, v. 32, p. 1-2, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2020.101995

    Palavras-Chave: sterilization; germicides; radiation doses; ultraviolet radiation; coronaviruses

  • IPEN-DOC 27443

    CASSOL, HENRIQUE L.G.; DOMINGUES, LUCAS G. ; BASSO, LUANA S.; GATTI, LUCIANA V. ; MARANI, LUCIANO; TEJADA, GRACIELA; ARAI, EGIDIO; MILLER, JOHN B.; ANDERSON, LIANA O.; ARAGAO, LUIZ E.O.C.. Understanding the temporal dynamics of carbon emission from fires in the Amazon-Cerrado transition zone. Biodiversidade Brasileira, v. 9, n. 1, p. 132-132, 2019. DOI: 10.37002/biobrasil.v%25vi%25i.1273

    Abstract: Carbon emissions from fires (C fire) account for one-tenth of the global annual C emissions. Fires are the main source of emissions from land-use change. Recently, Werf et al. 2017, showed an 11% increase in global fire emissions during the 1997-2016 period. Savannas and Tropical Forests have shared almost the same fire-derived C emission values in the South America (Werf et al. 2017). Therefore, for this study we focused our analysis on a site representing the transition zone between Amazonia and Cerrado, located in Alta Floresta (ALF) in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. To understand the temporal dynamics of fire-derived C emission, we correlated fire counts (FC) within the influence area with fire-derived C emission directly measured in the atmosphere as CO concentration. CO and CO2 were collected monthly for 7 years from 2010 onwards using an aircraft flying up to 4.5 km altitude, totaling 153 vertical profiles. FC was extracted from influence areas weighted by the density of backward trajectories calculated quarterly. Trajectories starting from the flight location within a cell of one degree resolution were obtained using the Hysplit model at different heights. The average annual C emission from fire was 0.10 ± 0.04 Pg.C.yr-1, which represents about 10% of the Amazon fire emissions (Aragão et al. 2018). The highest daily value of fire emission was observed in 2010 (drought year) and 2017 (0.47-0.51 gC.m².day-1), although the years of 2011, 2016, and 2017 were the largest contributor to the total emission flux. This occurred because the influence area that belongs to the Amazon was lower in those years. Inter annually there is a typical behavior of the backward trajectories in ALF site whose 1st and 4th quarters have 80% of the air-streams coming from the Amazon, while during the 2nd and 3rd quarters this contribution is about 45%. However, emissions from fire and FC are higher in the 3rd quarter, outside the Amazon. The correlation between FC and fire emission was positively significant (ρ = 0.88, α = 0.05, p<0.001), meaning that an increase of 1,000 FC per quarter causes an increase of 0.074 gC.m².day-1 or, on average, an emission of 0.16 Pg.C.yr-1.

    Palavras-Chave: fires; carbon dioxide; emission; forests; greenhouse gases; environment

  • IPEN-DOC 27442

    TEJADA, GRACIELA; GATTI, LUCIANA ; BASSO, LUANA; CASSOL, HENRIQUE L.G.; MARANI, LUCIANO; CORREIA, CAIO ; DOMINGUES, LUCAS ; CRISPIM, STEPHANE; NEVES, RAIANE; ANDERSON, LIANA O.; ARAGAO, LUIZ E.O.C.; ARAI, EGIDIO; GLOOR, MANUEL; MILLER, JOHN B.; VON RANDOW, CELSO. Understanding the relationships between local deforestation and CO2 atmospheric measurements in the Brazilian Amazon. Pesquisa Florestal Brasileira - Brazilian Journal of Forestry Research, v. 39, Special issue, p. 528-528, 2019. DOI: 10.4336/2019.pfb.39e201902043

    Abstract: Amazon forests play a fundamental role in the global carbon balance as a carbon sink, but temperature elevations and frequents extreme events as droughts and floods could make the forests a source of CO2. Local atmospheric measurements of greenhouse gases are needed to better understand how forest will respond to climate change. The lower-troposphere greenhouse gas (GHG) monitoring program over Brazilian Amazon Basin, has been collecting biweekly GHGs vertical profiles in four sites since 2010. We aim to understand the relationships between local deforestation and CO2 aircraft measurements in the Brazilian Amazon. We calculated annual deforestation (using the Amazon Deforestation Calculation Program - PRODES), land use and cover change data (using the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics - IBGE) and fire data (using the Fire Monitoring System) in each annual influence area at the four flight measurement sites of the Brazilian Amazon from 2010-2017 (and also in the mean influence area of all years by sites). We found that when we see total deforestation, it has a relationship with global CO2 emissions in the Brazilian Amazon biome. Fire has a strong relationship in the drought years, mostly in 2012. Looking at each site, we found specific correlations with deforestation, fire and land use. The biggest challenge was to compare spatial analyzes of land use change and fire with punctual data of airplane GHGs measurements. This study will contribute in our understanding of anthropogenic activities over the Amazon forest in a changing climate.

    Palavras-Chave: deforestation; greenhouse gases; monitoring; environment; atmospheres; carbon dioxide; emission

  • IPEN-DOC 27441

    BASSO, LUANA S.; GATTI, LUCIANA V. ; MARANI, LUCIANO; CASSOL, HENRIQUE L.G.; TEJADA, GRACIELA; CORREIA, CAIO S.C. ; DOMINGUES, LUCAS G. ; CRISPIM, STEPHANE P.; NEVES, RAIANE A.L.; ARAI, EGIDIO; MILLER, JOHN B.; GLOOR, MANUEL; ANDERSON, LIANA O.; ARAGAO, LUIZ E.O.C.. A first Amazon CH4 budget and its controls based on atmospheric data from vertical profiles measurements. Pesquisa Florestal Brasileira - Brazilian Journal of Forestry Research, v. 39, Special issue, p. 528-528, 2019. DOI: 10.4336/2019.pfb.39e201902043

    Abstract: The role of tropical regions in the global CH4 balance remained uncertain, due these regions have until recently been poorly observed with large-scale integrating in-situ observations. To contribute in understanding the CH4 balance in tropical regions, we have started a lower-troposphere greenhouse gas-monitoring program over Brazilian Amazon Basin consisting of regular vertical profile greenhouse gas observations at four sites. Samples are collected regularly each 2 weeks, using light aircraft. We will present an analysis of these data and what they tell us about the Amazon CH4 cycle and its contribution to global CH4 concentration. We estimate fluxes upwind of the sites from the profile data using a column budgeting approach (Miller et al., 2007). Over the full period (2010-2017) the Amazon Basin was a source of CH4, but with regional variations. There are comparably high and highly variable emissions from the eastern part of the basin exhibiting strong variability, with particularly high CH4 fluxes in two different periods of the year (beginning of the wet season and in the dry season). In contrast to this, a clear seasonality was observed at the other three sites, with the largest emissions occurring at the beginning of the wet season (January to March). Emissions from biomass burning contribute with a small part of the total flux at each site. We will finally discuss what is the influence from precipitation and temperature in the Amazon CH4 emissions.

    Palavras-Chave: methane; atmospheres; carbon monoxide; greenhouse gases; wetlands

  • IPEN-DOC 27301

    KADLUBOWSKI, SLAWOMIR S.; VARCA, GUSTAVO H.C. . Editorial. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, v. 169, SI, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.radphyschem.2019.108542

    Palavras-Chave: nanoparticles; radiations; nanomaterials; electron beams

  • IPEN-DOC 27300

    WANG, RAYMOND Y.; FRANCO, JOSE F. da S. ; LOPEZ-VALDEZ, JAIME; MARTINS, ESMERALDA; SUTTON, VERNON R.; WHITLEY, CHESTER B.; ZHANG, LIN; CIMMS, TRICIA; MARSDEN, DEBORAH; JURECKA, AGNIESZKA; HARMATZ, PAUL. Long-term safety and efficacy of vestronidase alfa, rhGUS enzyme replacement therapy, in subjects with mucopolysaccharidosis type VII. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, v. 129, n. 2, p. S158-S159, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2019.11.422

    Abstract: Vestronidase alfa (recombinant human beta-glucuronidase) is an enzyme replacement therapy for mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII), a highly heterogeneous, ultra-rare disease. Twelve subjects, ages 8–25 years, completed a Phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled, blind-start, single crossover study (UX003- CL301; NCT02230566), receiving 24–48 weeks of vestronidase alfa 4 mg/kg IV. All 12 subjects completed the blind-start study, which showed significantly reduced urinary glycosaminoglycans (uGAG) and clinical improvement in a multi-domain responder index, and enrolled in a long-term, open-label, extension study (UX003-CL202; NCT02432144). Here, we report the final results of the extension study, up to an additional 144 weeks after completion of the blindstart study. Three subjects (25%) completed all 144 weeks of study, eight subjects (67%) ended study participation before Week 144 to switch to commercially available vestronidase alfa, and one subject discontinued due to non-compliance after receiving one infusion of vestronidase alfa in the extension study. The safety profile of vestronidase alfa in the extension study was consistent with observations in the preceding blind-start study, with most adverse events mild to moderate in severity. There were no treatment or study discontinuations due to AEs and no noteworthy changes in a standard safety chemistry panel. There was no association between antibody formation and infusion associated reactions. Subjects receiving continuous vestronidase alfa treatment showed a sustained uGAG reduction and clinical response evaluated using a multidomain responder index that includes assessments in pulmonary function, motor function, range of motion, mobility, and visual acuity. Reductions in fatigue were also maintained in the overall population. Results from this study show the long-term safety and durability of clinical efficacy in subjects with MPS VII with long-term vestronidase alfa treatment.

    Palavras-Chave: recombinant dna; glucuronidase; mucopolysaccharides; glycoproteins; glycosides; enzymes; therapy

  • IPEN-DOC 27112

    HERNANDES, CAMILA; SILVA, BRUNA da; KLINGBEIL, MARIA de F.G. ; MATHOR, MONICA B. ; PEREIRA, ANA M.S.; SEVERINO, PATRICIA. Avoiding chemotherapy resistance in squamous cell carcinomas: anticancer activities of terpenoids and their impact on the regulation of microRNAs. Cancer Research, v. 77, 13 Supplement, 2017. DOI: 10.1158/1538-7445.AM2017-5456

    Abstract: MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that play important roles in cellular biology. They have been implicated in pharmacogenomics by down-regulating genes that are essential for drug function. In this work we verified the potential anticancer activity of the quinone methide triterpenes maytenin and 22-β-hydroxymaytenin, as well as of a quinone methide triterpene-rich extract obtained from cultivated Maytenus ilicifolia root cells, and evaluated the associated microRNA expression following half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) treatment. Standard selectivity index (SI) for the isolated compounds and the root cell extract was determined by the logarithmic shift in effective concentration (IC50) between cancer cell lines and oral keratinocytes. Both isolated molecules as well as the root cell extract presented pronounced antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activities in four cell lines derived from head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, including a metastasis-derived cell line. A positive SI, with an average 2-fold increase in potency, was detected for single agents and for the extract. MicroRNA expression profiles were assessed at 24h, 48h and 72h following treatment and an average of 100 molecules presented consistent marked variation in expression levels. Considering associations of microRNAs, genes they regulate, and the drugs effects dependent on these genes, the down-regulation of miR-193a-3p and miR-21 in treated cells is of particular interest. Both microRNAs have been involved in 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin resistance, current agents of standard chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced head and neck cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is one of the most common cancer types worldwide whereas treatment options based on conventional therapies or targeted therapies under development have limited efficacy. Plant-derived products are valuable sources for the development of new therapeutic options for cancer treatment or as synergistic agents in existing regular care.

    Palavras-Chave: chemotherapy; neoplasms; epithelium; histology; rna; inhibition

  • IPEN-DOC 27025

    FONSECA, DANIELA P.M. da ; MONTEIRO, WALDEMAR A. . Analysis by optical microscopy and x-ray diffraction of composite Cu-Cr-Ag-Al2O3 synthesized using powder metallurgy. Acta Microscópica, v. 26, Supplement B, p. 278-279, 2017.

    Abstract: The use of Nature's materials in favor of human beings has been present in its daily life for a long time, copper and its alloys have been used in function of the high thermal and electrical conductivity, good mechanical properties, resistance to corrosion, ease of fabrication and also by the high value of scrap [1]. Metal alloys can also be combined with other classes of materials in order to obtain new properties, superior to the original alloy, this union of two or more materials forms a composite [2]. The studied composite has a ternary metal alloy (copper, chromium and silver) as a matrix and a ceramic oxide (alumina) as the reinforcing phase. The addition of chromium, silver and small amounts of finely dispersed metal oxides in copper improves their mechanical properties and increases the operating temperature, causing little loss of conductivity. A possible application of this composite is in electrical contacts, electronic devices that break the passage of current in electrical circuits [1]. The objective of this study was the microstructural characterization by optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction of the composite Cu-Cr-Ag-Al2O3 processed by powder metallurgy. The samples used were fabricated in laboratory scale of 25 mm diameter, 3,5 mm  ℎ  4,0 mm of height and 6,5 g of mass, with the following chemical compositions: (a) 85% Cu – 15% Al2O3; (b) 90% Cu – 5% Cr – 2% Ag – 3% Al2O3; (c) 90% Cu – 5% Cr – 5% Al2O3; (d) 90% Cu – 7% Cr – 3% Al2O3; (e) 85% Cu – 5% Cr – 5% Ag – 5% Al2O3; (f) 90% Cu – 5% Cr – 3% Ag – 2% Al2O3; (g) 90% Cu – 3% Cr – 7% Al2O3. In order to obtain the samples, the powders were weighed on a precision balance (according to each composition), mixed manually and cold-compacted in uniaxial press with 450 MPa pressure and sintered in an EDG furnace under 10-3 torr of mechanical vacuum and 650 °C in 6 h. The samples were prepared metallographically and observed in an optical microscope, the micrographs indicated coalescing of the copper particles and other metallic elements and formation of porosity (figure 1). The X-ray diffraction data were collected for samples (a) and (e) using graphite monochromator, copper tube, 25º ≤ 2θ ≥ 90º and Δ2θ = 0,02, from the diffractograms the mean crystallite size (𝐷) and microdeformation (𝜖) were calculated using the Williamson-Hall graphical method where the approximate line has a linear coefficient equal to 1/𝐷 and the angular coefficient is equal to 4𝜖/𝜆 [3]. In both samples were identified the expected phases, in agreement with the composition, and an undesirable phase of copper oxide (figure 2). The Williamson-Hall method was not used for all phases because it requires the identification of at least three peaks. Optical micrographs indicated presence of porosity inside the structure and partial homogeneity, due to the non-dissolution of the elements involved in the metal alloy, it is necessary to do further special thermal treatments. In some samples, a third phase was recognized, whose composition demands microanalyses to be properly identified. Through the diffractograms it was possible to identify the phase of copper oxide possibly coming from the sintering stage, this phase is not desirable or this composite because it negatively influences its electrical and mechanical properties. The Williamson-Hall method obtained a straight line with good correlation and suitable values of mean crystallite size and microdeformation for the copper phase.

    Palavras-Chave: copper alloys; corrosion resistance; composite materials; electric conductivity; powder metallurgy

  • IPEN-DOC 27024

    DIAS, RENAN A.F. ; MONTEIRO, WALDEMAR A. . Microstrutural evolution of nickel-based superalloy processed by Equal-Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP). Acta Microscópica, v. 26, Supplement B, p. 71-72, 2017.

    Abstract: The present work shows the microstructural (under optical microscopy) and Vickers hardness evolution of a nickel-based superalloy Inconel 600 (alloy 600) before and after deformed by Equal-Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) that significantly modified the alloy microstructure and, consequently, its strength. Alloy 600 is an austenitic nickel-based superalloy with 72% nickel, 14-17% chromium and 6-10% iron and it is commonly used in structures and components that work in aggressive environments. The grain size plays a significant role in the mechanical properties in this alloy; so, it is important to understand how processing techniques modify the microstructure of the material. In fact, ECAP is a processing technique involving the application of severe plastic deformation (SPD) used in the manufacture of metals and alloys with ultra-fine grains (UFG) and therefore with extraordinary combinations of both high strength and high ductility [1]. For the research, alloy 600 rods, supplied by Multialloy, with 8 mm diameter, were heat treated at 1200 °C for 6 h (solution), as shown in Figs. 1a and 1b, to achieve a larger grain size. The generated products were machined to the final dimensions of the specimen (6 X 6 X 25 mm) shown in Fig. 1c and then processed by ECAP, at room temperature using route A, in a D2 tool steel die, whose angles Φ and Ψ are 120° and 0° (Fig. 1d). Samples were pressed repetitively through a total of three passes, the microstructural aspect of the samples after each pass are shown in Figs. 2 and 3 with different magnifications. Metallographic preparations were made in the transverse, longitudinal and normal directions, TD, LD and ND of each sample. Sanding step with grit 320, 600 and 1200 were used. Polishing steps included 3 um- and 1 um-diamond paste and 0.05 um-alumina suspension and finally they were etched for optical examination using Marble’s etchant (10 g CuSO4, 50 ml HCl and 50 ml H2O). The micrographs were taken with OLYMPUS optical microscope model BX51M, with magnifications of 100x and 200x. The hardness tests were conducted in a Buehler Micromet 2103 microdurometer in the LD of the samples. For each measurement, a load of 500 g was applied for 15 s. Five separate measurements were taken on each sample at randomly selected points and then averaged. In Figs. 1a and 1b, it is possible to see only 1 phase, a solid solution of Ni-Cr-Fe, a coarsed grain structure and annealing twins. There are slight changes in the microstructure after the first pass, some strain marks are seen. After the second and third passes the microstructure shows highly deformed grains, deformation and transition bands. The values of hardness (Tab. 1) show an increase after each pass. In summary, (1) the micrographs analysis shows all the transformations from an annealed state to a highly-deformed state; (2) the grains are yet elongated after 3 passes and possibly do not show an expected UFG structure; (3) deformation twinning is revealed and is possible to see strain marks, deformation and transition bands; (4) the hardness values increased due to the high strain imposed to the alloy.

    Palavras-Chave: heat resisting alloys; microstructure; pressing; vickers hardness

  • IPEN-DOC 26944

    AFFONSO, REGINA ; SAMPAIO, SUELEN de B. ; JANUARIO, FAGNER S. ; PEREIRA, LARISSA M.; ARAGÃO, DANIELLE S.; CASARINI, DULCE E.; ELIAS, CAROLINE C. . A new approach to obtain the catalytic sites region of human sACE with correct fold and activity. Journal of Biotechnology and Biomaterials, v. 7, n. 1, p. 96-96, 2017. DOI: 10.4172/2155-952X.C1.071

    Abstract: Angiotensin-converting enzyme I (ACE) is a membrane-bound that catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin I to the potent vasopressor angiotensin II. ACE is a key part of the renin-angiotensin system, which regulates blood pressure and is widely distributed throughout the body. There are two isoforms of human ACE, including the somatic ACE (sACE) present in somatic tissue and the testicular ACE (tACE) present in male germinal cells. The sACE possesses two domains, N- C- domains, with catalytic sites which exhibit 60% sequence identity. These domains differ in terms of chloride-ion activation profiles, rates of peptide hydrolysis of angiotensin I, bradykinin, Goralatide, Luliberin, substance P, angiotensina, beta-amyloid peptide and sensitivities to various inhibitors. A more detailed analysis shows that these regions are composed of HEMGH and EAIGD sequences that bind zinc ions to facilitate catalytic activity (Fig. 1). Our question is: If the synthesis of catalytic sites with corrects structure and activity could be a good model per si to study new drugs. The objective was to obtain the Ala361 a Gli468 and Ala959 to Ser1066 catalytic regions sACE in a structural conformation that resembles its native form. The catalytic regions were obtained from bacterial system; the expression of this protein in soluble form enables completion of the solubilization/purification steps without the need for refolding. The characterization of Ala959 to Ser1066 region shows that this has an α-helix and β-strand structure, Fig. 1b, which zinc ion (essential for its activity) binds to, and with enzymatic activity. Our conclusion is that the strategy used to obtain the Ala959 to Ser1066 region in the correct structural conformation and with activity was successful.

    Palavras-Chave: angiotensin; enzyme inhibitors; zinc ions; bacteria

  • IPEN-DOC 26942

    GROSCHE, LUCAS C. ; FUNGARO, DENISE A. . Alkaline hydrothermal treatment of the waste produced in the semi-dry flue gas desulfurization system. Chemical Sciences Journal, v. 8, n. 3, p. 34-34, 2017. DOI: 10.4172/2150-3494-C1-011

    Abstract: Semi-dry flue gas desulfurization ash (SDA) is a byproduct generated from the desulfurization system of coal-fired power station. The beneficial reuse application for SDA material is relatively undeveloped and this residue is underutilized. SDA was used as raw material for the synthesis of zeolitic material by alkaline hydrothermal treatment. Different experimental conditions, such as, reaction time, temperature, alkali hydroxide concentration and solid/liquid ratio were studied. Raw ash material and synthesis products were characterized by XRD, XRF, particle size analyzer, TG-DTG-DTA and SDA was classified according to Brazilian Environmental Regulations. The results show that SDA has a higher CaO and SO3 content. The major minerals present in SDA are hannebachite, anhydrite, calcite, portlandite, gehlenite and sodium carbonate. The size of SDA particles is around 0.399-355.656 μM with median diameter of 7.63 μM. Thermal behavior of SDA was characterized by the existence of six and four stages under air and inert atmosphere, respectively. SDA can be classified as Class II A (non-dangerous/ non-inert) materials. The presence of zeolite hydroxysodalite confirms successful conversion of SDA into zeolitic material after activation in NaOH solutions. Along with the zeolitic product katoite, hydrocalumite and Al-substituted tobermorite were obtained. All the compounds formed present ionic exchange capacity. SDA utilization minimizes the environmental impact of disposal problems and further enables application for treatment of wastewater.

    Palavras-Chave: hydrothermal synthesis; acid neutralizing capacity; hydrothermal synthesis; ashes; coal; combustion; desulfurization; flue gas

  • IPEN-DOC 26937

    COSTA, ANDREA da; ZORGI, NAHIARA E.; NASCIMENTO, NANCI do ; GALISTEO JUNIOR, ANDRES J.; ANDRADE JUNIOR, HEITOR F. de. Gamma irradiated soluble extracts of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites induced better humoral and cellular immune response due to preferential uptake by APCs scavenger receptors. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 95, n. 5, S, p. 174-174, 2017. DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.abstract2016

    Abstract: Toxoplasmosis occurs in one-third of the adult world population, without adequate vaccines and causing disease in fetus or specific groups. Aside to sterilizing effect, gamma radiation acts on antigens inducing enhanced antisera production against snake venoms or cell and humoral response to recombinant leprosy proteins. Gamma radiation affects proteins directly or indirectly in water by action of oxidant radicals from water radiolysis. Early reports showed gamma irradiated crotoxin had enhanced uptake by macrophages, limited by scavenger receptors competitors, as probucol. Irradiated tachyzoites induced adequate immune response with protection, attributed to mitotic death and DNA damage. Irradiated proteins could take a part in this process and we study the immune response induced by gamma irradiated soluble extracts of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, using mice immunized with native proteins as controls. Mice immunized with irradiated extracts without adjuvants showed significant protection after challenge with ME-49 (p<0.05) and RH (p<0.0001) strains compared to controls. There are increased specific and high avidity IgG production (p<0.05) when compare d to controls group. By flow cytometry and in vitro culture, spleens of mice immunized irradiated extract presented increased proliferation of CD4+, CD8+ and B cells and IFN-γ production as compared to controls. J774 cells had increased uptake of biotinylated irradiated extracts as compared to the uptake of native extract (p<0.05), due to longer and continuous uptake. All these data points to an alternative and effective uptake and immune processing of irradiated T. gondii extracts, probably due to specific receptor of oxidized proteins as scavenger receptors, resulting in enhanced immunity. This data also implies that irradiated proteins could be involved in the protection induced by irradiated parasites. Use of antigen gamma radiation can be a simple process to enhance vaccine efficiency, avoiding the use of adjuvants.

    Palavras-Chave: immunity; protozoa; proteins; gamma radiation; parasitic diseases

  • IPEN-DOC 26936

    CAMPOS, L.M.P. ; BOARO, L.C.C. ; SANTOS, T.M.R. ; VARCA, G.H.C. ; SANTOS, L.K.G. ; LUGAO, A.B. ; PARRA, D.F. . Estudo da liberação de clorexidina incorporada em nanopartículas de montmorilonita em compósitos a base de BisGMA/TEGDMA. Brazilian Oral Research, v. 30, Supplement 1, p. 81-81, 2016.

    Abstract: O objetivo desse estudo foi desenvolver nanocompósitos experimentais adicionados com nanopartículas de Montmorilonita (MMT) incorporadas com diacetato de clorexidina (CHX) como carga, em uma matriz polimérica a base de BisGMA/TEGDMA (1:1). Foram confeccionados compósitos experimentais (n=5) adicionados com carga nas concentrações de 0.01, 0.5, 2 e 10% em massa (p/p). A liberação da CHX foi avaliada in vitro em uma solução neutra (pH 7, 50mm) a 37 oC, por 366 horas. A quantificação de CHX foi avaliada por espectrofotometria de UV (λ=255 nm). A formação de nanocompósitos foi avaliada por meio das metodologias Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão (MET) e Difração de Raio-X (DRX). Foi observada uma liberação de fármaco constante em todos os grupos analisados, de 0 a 366 horas. Ao atingir 366 horas, o grupo adicionado com 0,01% de carga apresentou 0.126 g.L-1 de liberação de CHX, o grupo com 0.5% apresentou 0.139 g.L-1, o grupo com 2% apresentou 0.150 g.L-1 e o grupo com 10% apresentou 0.151 g.L-1. Observou-se por meio do DRX e MET que houve intercalação entre a MMT (adicionada com CHX) e a matriz polimérica, em todos os grupos avaliados. Concluiu-se que houve a formação de nanocompósitos e que os mesmos promoveram constante liberação de CHX entre 0 a 366 horas. Esses resultados evidenciaram um forte potencial no desenvolvimento de nanocompósitos contendo fármaco antimicrobiano para aplicação odontológica.

    Palavras-Chave: antiseptics; nanoparticles; montmorillonite; thermal gravimetric analysis; polymers

  • IPEN-DOC 26933

    THOMAZI, G.O.C. ; PREZOTTO NETO, J.P. ; ALVES, G.J. ; TURIBIO, T.O. ; AIRES, R.S. ; ROCHA, A.M. ; SEIBERT, C.S.; SPENCER, P.J. ; NASCIMENTO, N. . Redução da atividade edematogênica promovida pelo muco da raia de água doce Paratrygon aiereba utilizando soro produzido contra o muco irradiado com raios gama de 60Co. Anais da SBBN, v. 3, p. 47-47, 2016.

    Abstract: Introdução: As raias são peixes peçonhentos com ampla distribuição geográfica nos principais rios brasileiros e merecem destaque por estarem frequentemente associadas a acidentes em seres humanos. Estes agravos são frequentes na região Norte do país e favorecidos pelo hábito desses peixes de permanecerem em repouso no fundo arenoso ou lamacento de águas rasas e pela frequente utilização humana dos rios, seja por lazer ou atividades ocupacionais. Os ferimentos provocados pelos ferrões das raias são dolorosos, de difícil cicatrização, causam necroses extensas e fenômenos sistêmicos. O muco que recobre toda a extensão do corpo desses peixes pode aumentar a gravidade desses ferimentos. A escassez de estudos voltados para o tratamento específico das lesões oriundas dos agravos por esses peixes, a ausência de estudos com outros gêneros de raias dulcícolas e a possibilidade de produção de soro contra o veneno de raias estimularam o desenvolvimento deste estudo utilizando a radiação ionizante que tem se mostrado vantajosa na atenuação de toxinas animais, resultando na obtenção de melhores imunógenos para a produção de soros. Objetivo: Avaliar e comparar o potencial neutralizante dos soros anti-mucoda raia Paratrygonaierebanativo ou irradiado (2 kGy-60Co) contra a ação edematogênicado muco nativo. Método: Mediante aprovação da CEUA/IPEN/SP n°126/2013 e do ICMBion.º 45407-1/2014 foi desenvolvido este trabalho. O muco (50μg/mL) de P. aierebafoi incubado em banho-maria com os soros anti-muconativo ou soro anti-mucoirradiado diluídos de 1:100 ou 1:1.000 (soros de coelhos imunizados contra o muco nativo ou irradiado por 60Co de P. aiereba). Após a incubação, as amostras foram injetadas (30μL) no coxim plantar da pata posterior de camundongos Swissmachos, 18 a 20g, (n=30). A interferência na atividade edematogênicafoi verificada nos tempos de 1h, 2h, 4h e 24h após a inoculação. Em todos os animais foi verificado o volume inicial individual de cada pata antes da injeção das amostras. Os volumes foram mensurados em pletismômetroe os resultados expressos como a variação do volume em relação ao volume basal em μL por período (ExpBioMed. 239:601, 2014). A avaliação estatística foi realizada pela análise de variância com auxílio do softwareGraphPadPrism5.0. Resultados: O muco de P. aierebafoi capaz de induzir edema de 1h a 4h após a inoculação, com declínio de 4 a 24h (p<0,01 em relação aos controles). O soro anti-muconativo não foi capaz de inibir a formação do edema nas diluições testadas, sem diferença estatística com o edema induzido pelo muco (p>0,05). O soro anti-mucoirradiado diluído 1:100 apresentou interferência significativa na atividade edematogênicanas primeiras quatro horas (p<0,01). O soro anti-mucoirradiado 1:1000 foi capaz de diminuir a formação de edema nas 1ª e 4ª horas (p<0,01). O edema foi reduzido pelo soro anti-mucoirradiado pré-incubado com o muco não irradiado (nativo). Conclusão: Esse resultado mostra que além do muco irradiado ser capaz de estimular a proliferação de células de memória, ou seja, a produção de anticorpos IgGespecíficos, estas imunoglobulinas são capazes de reconhecer a fração responsável pela atividade edematogênica. Estes resultados nos permite concluir que o processo de irradiação tornou o muco da raia P. aierebamais antigênico.

    Palavras-Chave: cobalt 60; edema; fishes; fresh water; incubation; irradiation; mice; venoms; wounds; immune serums

  • IPEN-DOC 26932

    SILVA, C.R. ; LUNA, A.C.L.; MARIA, D.A.; RIBEIRO, M.S. . Fotobiomodulação em células de câncer de mama após exposição à radiação ionizante. Anais da SBBN, v. 3, p. 56-56, 2016.

    Abstract: Introdução: A radioterapia vem sendo utilizada no tratamento de alguns tipos de câncer, causando alguns efeitos deletérios a células sadias adjacentes. A fotobiomodulação(PBM) surge como uma alternativa para modular processos inflamatórios e acelerar a cicatrização de lesões, no entanto, seu uso na Oncologia é limitado já que os efeitos da PBM em células tumorais são controversos. Objetivos: O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar os efeitos da PBM em células de câncer de mama após exposição à radiação gama. Métodos: As células de câncer de mama (MDA-MB-231) foram cultivadas em meio DMEM suplementado com 10 % de soro fetal bovino e armazenadas em incubadora com 5% CO2 a 37C. Uma concentração de células (1x105) foi colocada em placas de 96 poços em triplicata e exposta à radiação ionizante em um irradiador de fonte 60CO tipo Gamacellcom a dose de 10Gy(IR10). Vinte e quatro horas após a radiação ionizante, as células foram expostas à irradiação de um laser de emissão λ= 660nm, potência de saída de 40mW e área de 0,04cm². A distância entre o laser e a monocamada de células foi mantida constante de modo que o laser ficasse em contato direto com o fundo da placa. O tempo de exposição foi de 60 s (IR10+PMB60) e 120 s (IR10+PMB120), correspondendo às energias de 2,4 e 4,8J (PMB), respectivamente. Após vinte e quatro horas da exposição ao laser, foi verificada a viabilidade celular através do teste de exclusão com azul de tripane contagem em hemocitômetro, o ciclo celular, expressão de pcna, caspase3 e a proteína p53 utilizando a técnica de citometriade fluxo com canal de leitura em FL1-H do grupo não irradiado com radiação gama e não irradiado com laser (IR0+PMB0) e dos demais grupos. Os experimentos foram realizados em triplicata em três momentos distintos (n=9). A análise estatística foi realizada no programa OriginPro 8com os testes Shapiro Wilkpara testar normalidade, Anova One-Way para comparação das médias. O teste deTukeyfoi realizado para identificar diferenças significativas quando p<0,05. Resultados: Os resultados obtidos mostraram que durante o período experimental analisado, a PBM não influenciou na viabilidade celular (IR0+PMB0=25,95±1,07, IR10= 24,84±5,87, IR10+PMB60=26,11±1,69, IR10+PMB120=21,72±1,56, PMB= 23,45±0,33), na expressão de caspase3(IR0+PMB0=1,7±0,8,IR10=1,25±0,07,IR10+PMB60=1,00±0,30,IR10+PMB120=2,45±0,15, PMB= 1,55±0,75) e da proteína p53 (IR0+PMB0=5,35±1,75, IR10= 6,1±1,32,IR10+PMB60= 5,9±0,05, IR10+PMB120=6,35±1,15, PMB= 6,35±1,15), independente da energia utilizada. No ciclo celular foi possível verificar maior população nas fases S e G2/m, entretanto a expressão de pcna(IR0+PMB0=14,85±0,77,IR10=8,65±0,91,IR10+PMB60=4,35±0,85, IR10+PMB120=6,45±1,55, PMB= 6,0±0,8) não foi significativa, mas apresentou valores inferiores comparados ao grupo IR10. Conclusões: Em vista dos resultados apresentados verificamos que a PBM não influenciou a viabilidade celular, as expressões de caspase3, p53 e a expressão de pcna, independente da energia utilizada. Estes resultados sugerem que a PBM pode ser associada ao tratamento dos efeitos deletérios da radioterapia em pacientes oncológicos.

    Palavras-Chave: cobalt 60; gamma radiation; healing; inflammation; lambda particle beams; laser radiation; mammary glands; radiation effects; tumor cells; viability

  • IPEN-DOC 26931

    CABRAL, F.V. ; SILVA, C.R. ; RIBEIRO, M.S. . Estudo da terapia fotodinâmica no tratamento de leishmaniose cutânea em um modelo murino. Anais da SBBN, v. 3, p. 57-57, 2016.

    Abstract: Introdução: Leishmanioses são doenças infecto-parasitárias, de evolução crônica, desenvolvidas por protozoários do gênero Leishmania. A forma cutânea abrange lesões destrutivas e ulceradas com diversas limitações no tratamento. O surgimento de terapias alternativas é fundamental devido à grande relevância da doença e elevada incidência. Nesse contexto, a terapia fotodinâmica (PDT) tem sido introduzida como possibilidade terapêutica, em função do baixo custo, mínima toxicidade, praticidade e sem relatos de resistência na literatura. Objetivos:Avaliar os efeitos da PDT no tratamento de leishmaniose cutânea induzida em camundongos BALB/c. Métodos: Este estudo foi aprovado pelo CEUA/IPEN sob o no. 70/10.Culturas de L.(L.)amazonensis(IFLA/BR/67/PH8) foram mantidas a 25oC em meio Grace com 10% de soro fetal bovino. Para a infecção, foram utilizados 16 camundongos BALB/c com 8 semanas e massa aproximada de 30g. Foram inoculados 1x106parasitos no membro posterior esquerdo dos animais, que foram monitorados por 4 semanas. O tamanho de ambos os membros de cada animal foi mensurado com um paquímetro, semanalmente. Após a quarta semana de infecção, os animais foram submetidos à PDT (azul de metileno a 100 μM, λ= 660 nm) e divididos em 4 grupos (n=4) de acordo com a densidade de energia utilizada: 50 J/cm2(G50), 100 J/cm2(G100), 150 J/cm2(G150) e grupo controle (GC=animais infectados e não tratados). Os animais foram anestesiados (quetamina, 90mg/kg e xilazina,10mg/kg) e acompanhados durante 3 semanas pós-PDT para avaliar a evolução da lesão, dor e carga parasitária. Para estimar a altura da lesão, a diferença entre os dados obtidos da pata infectada e contralateral sem infecção foi calculada e normalizada. A avaliação da dor foi obtida através do método von Frey, que é um teste de pressão crescente utilizado em animais. Uma escala de dor de 1 a 6 foi estipulada (1= pouca e 6= grande sensibilidade). Para a carga parasitária, o tecido da lesão foi macerado, filtrado, centrifugado, ressuspendidoem meio e semeado em placas de 96 poços e realizada a diluição limitante até o último poço, com fator de diluição 10. A placa foi incubada a 25ºC por 7 dias. A análise estatística foi obtida no programa Prism6, com os testes Anova Two-WayeTukey. Os resultados foram considerados significativos quando p<0,05. Resultados:Os resultados indicaram que houve diferença estatística no tamanho da lesão entre os grupos GC e G150 (GC= 259,3%23,6, G150= 175%19,1), (GC= 292,1%51, G150= 195,3%32,1) 2 e 3 semanas após a PDT, respectivamente. Na escala de dor, observamos diferenças significativas entre GC e G150 (GC= 5,750,5, G150= 4,250,5), (GC= 6, G150= 1,250,5) após 2 e 3 semanas, respectivamente e GC e G100 após 3 semanas (GC= 6, G100= 4,250,5). Porém, nos resultados da carga parasitária não foi observada diferença significativa. Conclusão:O presente estudo mostrou que a terapia fotodinâmica reduziu o tamanho da lesão e aliviou a dor em leishmaniose cutânea induzida em camundongos, sugerindo que a PDT pode ter influenciado no processo inflamatório. Estes resultados encorajam mais estudos para compreensão dos mecanismos da PDT no tratamento de leishmaniose cutânea.

    Palavras-Chave: parasitic diseases; skin diseases; parasites; photosensitivity; therapy; photochemistry

  • IPEN-DOC 26930

    BARBEZAN, A.B. ; SALES, B.R.; MARTINS, R. ; BUENO, J.B. ; SANTELLI, G.M.M.; VILLAVICENCIO, A.L.C.H. . Avaliação do potencial citotóxico da 2-tetradecilciclobutana em células hepáticas linhagem HepG2: estudos in vitro. Anais da SBBN, v. 3, p. 43-43, 2016.

    Abstract: Introdução: A irradiação de alimentos é um método eficaz e seguro para a preservação e armazenamento em longo prazo, é aprovado para utilização em mais de 60 países para diversas aplicações em uma ampla variedade de produtos alimentares (Agric. Food Chem. 51; 927, 2003. Food Chem. 201; 52-58, 2016). Este processo é realizado através da utilização de feixes de elétrons acelerados, raios-X ou radiação gama (60Co ou 137Cs). As 2-Alcilciclobutanonas (2-ACBs) são os únicos produtos radiolíticos conhecidos gerados a partir de alimentos que possuem ácidos graxos (Triglicérides) e são submetidos à irradiação (J. Food Protc. 67; 142, 2004. T. Food Scie.Tech. 44; 66-78, 2015). O ácido analisado neste estudo é o esteárico que quando irradiado forma 2-Tetradecilciclobutanona (2-tDCB). Desde a década de 1990 estudos toxicológicos de segurança das 2-ACBs tem sido conduzido extensivamente através de compostos sintéticos. Testes de mutagenicidade das 2-ACBs realizados indicam claramente que nenhuma evidência foi observada, enquanto estudos de viabilidade apresentaram citotoxicidade notada através da morte celular (Food Scie. Tech. 44; 66-78, 2015). Parte das 2-ACBs ingeridas é excretada através das fezes e parte ficam depositadas em tecidos adiposos. Estudos realizados até o momento foram somente em células de cólon. A linhagem escolhida para este trabalho é derivada de células hepáticas uma vez que o acumulo de gordura neste órgão é bastante comum. Objetivo: Avaliar possíveis danos citotóxicos, através do teste de viabilidade celular MTT observando a influência de diversas concentrações da 2-tDCB em diferentes tempos de incubação em células hepáticas da linhagem HepG2. Métodos: O composto 2-tDCB foi solubilizado em etanol a 2%. A linhagem celular escolhida é derivada de hepatocarcinoma humano (HepG2) e foi cultivada em meio de cultura suplementado com 10% de soro fetal bovino. As células foram plaqueadas na densidade de 5x103 cél/poço em uma placa de 96 poços. O efeito citotóxico da 2-tDCB foi avaliado nas concentrações de 100, 300 e 500μM, durante 24 e 48 horas. Os testes foram realizados de acordo com instruções do kit CellTiter96 Aqueus Non-radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay, em triplicatas (biológica e experimental) e os resultados foram analisados pelo programa Prisma GraphPad. Resultados: A linhagem tratada com 2-tDCB em 24 e 48h não apresentou citotoxicidade em nenhuma das concentrações avaliadas. Conclusão: Não houve inviabilidade causada pelo composto 2-tDCB na linhagem de células hepática estudadas, nenhum dano foi observado em nenhuma das variações pesquisadas. Estudos mais aprofundados são necessários para identificar os mecanismos moleculares pela qual o composto em questão atua.

    Palavras-Chave: carboxylic acids; carcinomas; irradiation; liver cells; radiation effects; toxicity; viability; animal cells; diseases; neoplasms; organic acids; somatic cells

  • IPEN-DOC 26918

    FUNGARO, DENISE A. . Estabilização de solo contaminado com zinco usando zeólitas sintetizadas a partir de cinzas de carvão. Revista Água e Meio Ambiente Subterrâneo, v. 7, n. 43, p. 28-28, 2015.

    Palavras-Chave: zeolites; coal; ashes; soils; contamination; stabilization

  • IPEN-DOC 26914

    SOUZA, C.D. de ; ROSTELATO, M.C.M. ; CARDOSO, R.M.; ARAKI, K.; MOURA, J. . New methodology for binding Iodine-125 onto silver for brachytherapy sources manufacture. Medical Physics, v. 44, n. 6, p. 2828-2828, 2017. DOI: 10.1002/mp.12304

    Abstract: Purpose: Cancer is a major health care problem in Brazil and the world. The Brazil’s National Institute for Cancer estimates around 60,000 new prostate cancer cases for 2017. We are assembling a laboratory for production of iodine-125 sources used in prostate brachytherapy in Brazil, since the imported treatment is extremely expensive, thus only available in the private healthcare sector. There are several challenges when developing a laboratory to produce radioactive sources. From choosing a prototype to radiation safety, the task is enormous. The whole production line is full of new process and innovations. Among those, a new chemical reaction that deposit iodine-125 onto silver (core) was developed. This paper presents a new reaction for binding iodine-125 into a silver core. The fixation percentage was calculated by measuring the activity in an ionization chamber. This methodology will be implemented at the iodine-125 sources manufacture laboratory. Methods: Silver cores are washed with an etching solution (100% sulfuric acid) for 5 minutes with sonication. The cores were then placed in sodium sulfate for at least 3 days. They went from a silver matte to a black color. The reaction was allowed to proceed overnight. Each core was individually measured. Results: The yield was 69.2% 7.1%. Considering the silver attenuation is around 20% the results were consider satisfactory. Conclusion: By maximize the reaction yield, we will be able to generate a less costly product that will be available through our public healthcare.

    Palavras-Chave: brachytherapy; iodine 125; silver; neoplasms; therapy

  • IPEN-DOC 26913

    RODRIGUES, B.T. ; ROSTELATO, M.C.M. ; SOUZA, C.D. de ; ZEITUNI, C. ; MOURA, E.S. de; SOUZA, D.B. de ; TOZETTI, C.; RODRIGUES, B. . New core configuration for producing Iodine 125 seeds. Medical Physics, v. 44, n. 6, p. 2828-2829, 2017. DOI: 10.1002/mp.12304

    Abstract: Purpose: Cancer is one of the most complex public health problems. Prostate cancer is the second most common among men. In prostate brachytherapy use Iodine-125, which is fixated on a silver substrate, then inserted and sealed in a titanium capsule. This work proposes a new source configuration using epoxy resin substrate. Methods: Comparation and analysis methods were used to define the methodology for combining iodine-125 in polymers. The parameters were immersion time, reaction type, concentration of the adsorption solution, specific activity of the radioactive solution, need for carrier and chemical form of radioactive iodine. Results: The methodology developed with an epoxy resin was very good. The final radioactive intake on the resin was higher than 80%. The immobilization of the radioactive solution occurred in the matrix, without any loss or deposition of undesirable materials on its surface, as evidenced by the smear test. The material maintains its integrity when autoclaved at 140 °C. The curing process of the resin was 40 minutes. With the value of the initial activity of the Iodine solution by mass (774.2 lCi/g), it was possible to calculate the immobilization efficiency Average of 680 lCi/g. The immersion test in distilled water at room temperature did not exceed the limit allowed by ISO 9978, which is 5 nCi (185 Bq), proof of no leakage. In a computational simulation by the Monte Carlo Method, PENELOPE, the simulations were consistent with the values adopted by the literature for the GE Healthcare model 6711, which shows the value of the dose rate constant as 0, 965 cGy.U-1.h-1. Conclusion: The effective method for combining iodine-125 in epoxy resin was determinated. The major advantage was the high efficiency percentage fixation, around 82,1 3,2%, and the simplicity and safety of the process.

    Palavras-Chave: neoplasms; prostate; iodine 125; polymers; epoxides; resins

  • IPEN-DOC 26912

    RODRIGUES, B.T. ; SOUZA, P.D. de ; SOUZA, C.D. de ; ROSTELATO, M.C.M. ; ZEITUNI, C. ; NOGUEIRA, B.R. ; MARQUES, J. de O. ; SOUZA, A.S. de . Methodology for in vivo dosimetry using TLD-100 for radiotherapic treatment. Medical Physics, v. 44, n. 6, p. 2898-2899, 2017. DOI: 10.1002/mp.12304

    Abstract: Cancer is a public health problem that affects approximately 27 million people worldwide. The most common type in Brazil among men is prostate cancer with 61 thousand cases. There are two forms of radiotherapy treatments that can be used: teletherapy and brachytherapy. Before starting the teletherapy treatment, a planning is done that makes the acquisition of the anatomical information of the patient to then classify the areas of interest. Dosimetry is performed as a quality control to ensure that the calculated dose is equal to that received by the patient. In vivo dosimetry acts as an independent measurement and this work aims at comparing the dosimetry performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters (LiF: Mg, Ti - TLD - 100) with dose values calculated in the planning system (TPS). Methods: All dosimeters were prepared to be used in an anthropomorphic phantom. A selection of dosimeters, 50 micro TLD’s, selected after heat treatment, were then irradiated and a reading was made. A case planned by TPS was selected and compared the dosimetry performed in an anthropomorphic phantom for the same case. Results: All values obtained were within the deviation ( 5%) allowed by the protocol. The results of this work will help to implement a new quality program in the Radiotherapy Service at Hospital das Cl ınicas de S~ao Paulo. Conclusion: The accurate dosimeter selection provided a feasible and reliable evaluation that enabled the comparison.

    Palavras-Chave: neoplasms; prostate; radiotherapy; brachytherapy; thermoluminescent dosimetry

  • IPEN-DOC 26911

    SOUZA, D.B. de ; ROSTELATO, M.C.M. ; VICENTE, R. ; ZEITUNI, C. ; SOUZA, C.D. de ; RODRIGUES, B.T. ; MARQUES, J. de O. ; CARVALHO, V. ; BARBOSA, N. . Measurement of Iodine-125 radioactive solid waste derived from sources production laboratory for brachytherapy. Medical Physics, v. 44, n. 6, p. 2974-2975, 2017. DOI: 10.1002/mp.12304

    Abstract: Purpose: This study aims to present a solid waste management plan for the laboratory of radioactive sources production (LPFR), iodine-125 brachytherapy seeds, located at the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN). After the implementation, it is expected to meet a demand of 8000 seeds per month. Methods: Waste from the production of Iodine-125 sources is classified as “Very Low Level Waste Disposal” (T1/2 ≤ 100 days) in the IAEA regulations. Despite that, they have levels of activity above the limits established in standard (CNEN 8.01) needing adequate management in order to guarantee the safety of the installation, operators and environment. The solid waste is generated in Glove box 1, were the fixation reaction (iodine-125 – core) takes place. The wastes from this production are absorbent papers and filters used in surface and air decontamination processes; glass vials, syringes and needles, used in the fixation reaction. Measures of mass, volume and values of activities generated over 5 years of production were performed for each glove box by estimating different scenarios throughout production (supplier switching, variation in activity by radioactive source, etc.). The concentration of activity was also determined in order to meet the criteria established in the standard for safe release of the waste. Results: The final volumes and activities calculated indicated that the laboratory has enough space for temporary storage until the release to the environment (thus not requiring treatment, transport, and another place for management). The data collected proved that a secure management system for radioactive waste within the facility is possible. Conclusion: The management proposed by this work was able to safely contemplate all stages of waste management. This data is indispensable for the construction and licensing of the laboratory.

    Palavras-Chave: radioactive waste management; solid wastes; iodine 125; brachytherapy; regulations; waste disposal

  • IPEN-DOC 26910

    BAPTISTA, T. ; ROSTELATO, M.C.M. ; ZEITUNI, C. ; PERINI, E.A. ; SOUZA, C.D. de ; MARQUES, J. de O. ; NOGUEIRA, B.R. ; ANGELOCCI, L.V. . Efficiancy of hydrogen peroxide for cleaning production areas and equipments in the Laboratory for Brachyterapy Sources Production. Medical Physics, v. 44, n. 6, p. 2828-2828, 2017. DOI: 10.1002/mp.12304

    Abstract: Purpose: A great challenge in the brachytherapy sources production is to fulfill the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) requirements, involving the process validation and of all supporting activities such as cleaning and sanitization. The increasingly strict requirements for quality assurance system, with several norms, normative resolutions and rules that must follow both medical products and radiochemical requirements, has led to a constant validation concerns. The main goal of GMP is to reduce inherent risks such as product contamination with microorganisms and cross-contamination. Methods: In the Laboratory for Brachytherapy Sources Production it was established a cleaning program for cleanrooms and hot cells using a hydrogen peroxide solution (6%). This work aims to assess the effectiveness of this cleaning agent in reducing and/or eliminating microbial load into the cleanrooms and equipments to acceptable levels in accordance with the current legislation. Results: The analysis was conducted using the results of the environmental monitoring program with settling contact plates in cleanrooms after the cleaning procedures. Furthermore, it was possible to evaluate the action of the sanitizing agent on the microbial population at the equipment and cleanrooms’ surfaces. It was also evaluated the best way to accomplish the cleaning program considering the dosimetry factor in each production process, hence the importance of radiological contamination. All the following environmental monitoring procedures presented satisfactory results, showing that the cleaning procedures was able to reduce and maintain the acceptable levels of viable and non-viable particles for the cleanroom classification (ISO 5 and ISO 7). The cleaning process with this sanitizer (hydrogen peroxide) can be performed quickly right before the production; allowing the production of brachytherapy sources without after use residues. Conclusion: This data will help the production of a clean and reliable product.

    Palavras-Chave: radiopharmaceutical; isotope production; cleaning; equipment; clean rooms; pollution sources; contamination; hydrogen peroxide

  • IPEN-DOC 26891

    YOSHIMURA, TANIA ; RIBEIRO, MARTHA S. . Photobiomodulation activates glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue of obese mice. Lasers in Medical Science, v. 35, n. 1, p. 280-280, 2020. DOI: 10.1007/s10103-019-02900-7

    Abstract: Mammal fat consists ofwhite and brown adipose tissues (WATand BAT). Although most fat is energy-storing WAT, brown adipocytes dissipate energy as heat. Obese subjects exhibit BAT hyporesponsiveness to classical stimuli as cold, hence increasing BAT thermogenic capacity could be an i n t er e s t i n g t a rget f o r t r eating obesity. Photobiomodulation (PBM) seems to be a feasible alternative to activate BAT, although it has not been applied for this purpose until now. In this study, adult C57Bl/6 mice were fed with a hyperlipidic diet (HF) during 15 weeks to induce obesity. Then, they were divided into two groups: HF and HF660. The interscapular BAT of HF660 mice was exposed to a single irradiation using a 662 ± 20 nm LED (5.7 Jcm-2 at 19 mWcm-2, delivered during 300 s). The HF group was sham-irradiated. Eutrophic animals were also used. Animals received 200 mCi of 18F-FDG and were exposed to cold for basal register of PET-CT images. After PBM or sh am treat ment, mice were once again exposed to cold before PET-CT image acquisition. Our results showed that PBM was able to activate BAT in obese mice through higher glucose uptake. In contrast, PBM and shamirradiated normal fed mice presented similar levels of glucose uptake. Taking together, our findings suggest that PBM applied to the BAT is able to promote glucose uptake by obese mice and could be an interesting approach to manage obesity and its correlated morbidities.

    Palavras-Chave: adipose tissue; glucose; metabolic diseases; mice; irradiation

  • IPEN-DOC 26890

    NUNEZ, SILVIA C.; SILVA, IVES C. da; NASCIMENTO, JONATHAN S.; RIBEIRO, MARTHA S. . Methodological study of photobiomodulation anti-edematous effects on carrageenan-induced inflammation on zebrafish. Lasers in Medical Science, v. 35, n. 1, p. 288-289, 2020. DOI: 10.1007/s10103-019-02900-7

    Abstract: The anti-inflammatory action of Photobiomodulation (PBM) is one of its most reproducible effects in vivo. New models to study PBMeffects and to investigate light dosimetry may bring different perspectives on the field. Based on the importance of establishing new experimental models and the advantages of using zebrafish for screening new drugs with potential anti-inflammatory effects the present investigation evaluated the effect of PBM on carragenan-induced abdominal edema in zebrafish. Thirty Danio rerio (± 1 g) zebrafish were randomly divided into five aquariums with 0.25L of water to establish three treatments: T1 - Naive non-treated; T2 – Saline 0.9%-injected; T3 - carrageenan-injected (CG) 3.5% in the coelomic cavity. T4 –injected (CG) 3.5% and treated with a diode laser λ=808nm, 50mWand 0.5J T5 –same parameters with 1J and T6 -1.5J. Abdominal volumes were measured by a caliper and the area was calculated 4 hours post-indu ction. Four hours after edema induction the results revealed an increase in the abdominal area of fish injected with CG 3.5% compared to negative control. The animals injected with CG and treated with PBM exhibited a reduction in abdominal edema in a dose-dependent manner. The 0.5J energy did not present a significant reduction compare do control (p=0.18), the 1J and 1.5J groups presented a significant difference (p=0.027 and p=0.005 respectively). The 1.5J group was not different from negative control (T2) p=0.37. The present study identified that zebrafish may represent a good model to investigate PBM effects and the response was dose dependent.

    Palavras-Chave: inflammation; fishes; antipyretics; dosimetry; biological effects

  • IPEN-DOC 26889

    SILVA, C.R. ; RIBEIRO, M.S. . Effects of photobiomodulation on breast tumor- bearing mice before radiotherapy. Lasers in Medical Science, v. 35, n. 1, p. 269-269, 2020. DOI: 10.1007/s10103-019-02900-7

    Abstract: Photobiomodulation (PBM) has been studied to modify the cellular response to ionizing radiation. However, its combination with radiotherapy (RT) has not been reported in cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of PBM applied before RT on breast tumor-bearing mice. Female BALB/c mice were inoculated with breast 4T1 cells into mammary fat pad and divided into 4 groups (n =5 per group): control (with no treatment), only RT, and PBM combined to RT in two different protocols. RT was locally applied using a 60Co source with dose of 60 Gy in fractions of 15 Gy. For PBM, a red laser (660 nm, 500 mW/cm2) was used in two regimes: single exposure 24 h before RT (fluence of 150 J/cm2) and immediately before each RT session (fluence of 37.5 J/cm2 per session). After treatment, tumor volume, platelets, white and red blood cell levels were evaluated during 14 days. Our results showed no statistically significant differen ces in t umor volume, platelet and red blood cell levels comparing control, RT and PBM+RT groups. However, PBM was able to sustain normal white blood cell levels compared to RT and control groups. In addition, mice that received PBM concomitant with RT presented a longer survival. In fact, for this group only 12.5 % of the animals died during experimental period. These findings indicate that PBM could be combined to RT to provide therapeutic anti-cancer benefits.

    Palavras-Chave: ionizing radiations; therapy; neoplasms; tumor cells; mice; mammary glands; radiotherapy

  • IPEN-DOC 26888

    CONTATORI, C.G. de S. ; SILVA, C.R. ; YOSHIMURA, T.M. ; RIBEIRO, M.S. . Effects of low-level laser irradiation on VEGF expression of melanoma cell lines. Lasers in Medical Science, v. 35, n. 1, p. 269-269, 2020. DOI: 10.1007/s10103-019-02900-7

    Abstract: Impact of low-level laser irradiation on tumor cell lines remains controversial. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key molecule to form new blood vessels, which contribute for cancer development and growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different light fluences on human melanoma SKMEL 37 cells and murine melanoma B16F10 cells using a near infrared laser (λ= 780 nm) with output power of 40 mW delivering energies of 1.2, 3.6 and 6 J (fluences of 30, 90 and 150 J/cm2, respectively). The cell lines were irradiated 24 h after they were seeded in a 96-well plate at a density of 5x103 cells per well, in triplicate at three different days. Following irradiation, both cell line supernatants were stored in Eppendorf tubes at - 20°C until VEGF-A expression measurement. Specific ELISA kits were used according to cell line (murine or human). Samples and standard solutions were added in a 96-well plate antibody-coated and incuba ted over night at 4°C. Reagent dilution and set time followed fabricant instructions. The stop solution was added and the absorbance was read in a microplate reader at 450 nm. Results showed a non-statistically significant difference among treated and control groups for both cell lines. These findings indicate that irradiation with near infrared laser does not influence VEGF expression on melanoma cell lines regardless the fluence used and should be tested to prevent cancer growth in preclinical assays.

    Palavras-Chave: laser radiation; low dose irradiation; doses; irradiation; tumor cells; melanomas; enzyme immunoassay

  • IPEN-DOC 26684

    PEREIRA, S.T. ; SILVA, C.R. ; RIBEIRO, M.S. . A single application of low-level light therapy in breast cancer-bearing mice: impact on blood cell count. Lasers in Medical Science, v. 35, n. 1, p. 274-274, 2020. DOI: 10.1007/s10103-019-02900-7

    Abstract: Low-level light therapy (LLLT) has been used in healthcare as a therapeutic strategy for diseases of various aetiologies. However, its effects on cancer is controversial. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of different light doses on blood cell count of breast cancer-bearing mice after a single application of LLLT. Tumour was induced by inoculation of 4T1 cells into the mammary fat pad of female BALB/c mice. Tumour volume was monitored with a digital calliper and when it reached 100 mm3, animals were irradiated by a red LED irradiator (660 ± 20 nm) at irradiance of 24.3 mW/cm2. The animals were randomly divided into groups (n= 5/group) that received energy densities of 1.8, 5.6 and 9.4 J/cm2. Control group was equally manipulated but did not receive irradiation. After treatment, data as tumour volume, platelets, white and red cell levels were registered weekly during 21 days. Our results showed that irradiated groups presented a longer survival compared to the control group, although no significant differences were observed among groups regarding tumour volume. Platelet levels of the irradiated groups remained closer to the reference values of healthy animals. Regarding the total number of white and red cells, no significant differences were observed between control and treated groups. These findings indicate that LLLT in a single application did not arrest tumour growth but may maintain platelet levels to increase survival of mice regardless the energy density protocol used.

    Palavras-Chave: blood cells; light emitting diodes; neoplasms; dose rates; blood platelets

  • IPEN-DOC 26856

    BOAS, CRISTIAN W.V. ; SILVA, JEFFERSON de J. ; BENEDETTO, RAQUEL ; MENGATTI, JAIR ; ARAUJO, ELAINE B. de . 177Lu-PSMA-617: Brazilian experience. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, v. 60, supplement 1 200, 2019.

    Abstract: Introduction: PSMA-617 radiolabeled with lutetium-177 has shown good results in compassionate studies around the world, and there is great interest in this kind of therapy in Brazil. The Nuclear and Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN) in São Paulo city, is a national radiopharmaceutical producer and the distribution of radiopharmaceuticals for therapy in a country of continental dimensions such as Brazil, becomes a challenge from the standpoint of guaranteeing the stability of the product. This work evaluated the scheduling of pilot batches for the production of 177Lu-PSMA-617 and studied the effect of dilution and freezing on the stability of mono-doses of the product. Materials and Methods: Radiolabeling of PSMA-617 (ABX, Germany) with lutetium-177 (JSC, Russia) was performed in heating block at 90 °C for 30 minutes, 37 GBq (1 Ci), 500 μg of peptide and sodium ascorbate (0,5 M pH 4,7) as buffer. At the end of the radiolabel, 0,5 mL of DTPA solution (4 mg/mL pH 4,5) was added and the product was diluted with an appropriate volume of saline solution 0,9%. The final product was filtrated in 0.22 membrane and the doses were fractionated (7,4 GBq calibrated for 24 hours in approximately 2,4 mL) and conditioned in appropriate lead chambers inside a dry ice bucket for transport simulation. The radiochemical purity (RP) was evaluated in a stability study at, 24 and 48 hours by TLC and HPLC. The radionuclidic purity, sterility and bacterial endotoxins were also evaluated. Results and discussion: The radiopharmaceutical was stable after 48 hours (99.47% TLC and 99.39% HPLC), and was approved in radionuclidic, sterility and endotoxins assays. The vials fractionated in mono-doses calibrated for 24 hours showed high stability through freezing and dilution, which allowed the transportation to the Cancer Hospital of Barretos, distant 420 km from the production center in São Paulo. All these mono-doses were administrated to the patients after 24 hours of the production. Also, these results denote that is possible to scale up this production until 74 GBq and be used in a clinical trial that is being planned. Conclusions: These carried out experiments demonstrated that it is possible to produce 177Lu-PSMA-617 for use in clinical trials in Brazil. Until now, four patients are under treatment (compassionate use). Also, these results demonstrate that it is still possible to increase production activity to 74 GBq, just like is normally done with 177Lu-DOTATATE.

    Palavras-Chave: lutetium 177; radiopharmaceuticals; prostate; neoplasms; brazil

  • IPEN-DOC 26740

    SUZUKI, M.F. ; OLIVEIRA, J.E. ; DAMIANI, R.; LIMA, E.R.; AMARAL, K.C. ; SILVA, F.M.; BARTOLINI, P. . Human bone morphogenetic protein (hBMP)-2 characterization by physical chemical, immunological and biological assays. Journal of Biotechnology, v. 305, S, p. S10-S10, 2019. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2019.05.050

    Abstract: Commercial preparations of human-met-BMP-2 (GenScript) and of CHO-derived hBMP-2 (Infuse-Medtronic) provided a complete characterization of this protein, which belongs to the “transforming growth factors β” superfamily, via SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, reversed-phase HPLC, high-performance size-exclusion chromatography and MALDI-TOF-MS. E.coli-derived met-hBMP-2 has shown a large presence of dimer (MM= 26,054 Da), versus a theoretic value of 26,072 Da. More complex was the distribution of the CHO-derived product, whose exact MM has never been reported due to variable glycosylation: via MALDI-TOF-MS a dimer (28,732 Da) and a large amount of monomer (14,377 Da) were found. A novel method based on RP-HPLC was also validated for hBMP-2 qualitative and quantitative analysis directly in ongoing culture media. The classical “in vitro” bioassay, via alkaline phosphatase induction in murine myoblastic cells C2C12, confirmed that hBMP-2 bioactivity is mostly related to the dimer, being ∼6-fold higher for the CHO-derived glycosylated form. Considering that hBMP-2 is a highly effective osteoinductors, plays an important role during bone regeneration and repair, as well as during embryonic development, and presents an extremely high aggregate value, we believe that these data pave the way to the characterization of this important factor when obtained by DNA recombinant techniques in different host cells.

    Palavras-Chave: proteins; skeleton; human populations; bone cells; cho cells; bioassay; escherichia coli; connective tissue cells

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A pesquisa no RD utiliza os recursos de busca da maioria das bases de dados. No entanto algumas dicas podem auxiliar para obter um resultado mais pertinente.

É possível efetuar a busca de um autor ou um termo em todo o RD, por meio do Buscar no Repositório , isto é, o termo solicitado será localizado em qualquer campo do RD. No entanto esse tipo de pesquisa não é recomendada a não ser que se deseje um resultado amplo e generalizado.

A pesquisa apresentará melhor resultado selecionando um dos filtros disponíveis em Navegar

Os filtros disponíveis em Navegar tais como: Coleções, Ano de publicação, Títulos, Assuntos, Autores, Revista, Tipo de publicação são autoexplicativos. O filtro, Autores IPEN apresenta uma relação com os autores vinculados ao IPEN; o ID Autor IPEN diz respeito ao número único de identificação de cada autor constante no RD e sob o qual estão agrupados todos os seus trabalhos independente das variáveis do seu nome; Tipo de acesso diz respeito à acessibilidade do documento, isto é , sujeito as leis de direitos autorais, ID RT apresenta a relação dos relatórios técnicos, restritos para consulta das comunidades indicadas.

A opção Busca avançada utiliza os conectores da lógica boleana, é o melhor recurso para combinar chaves de busca e obter documentos relevantes à sua pesquisa, utilize os filtros apresentados na caixa de seleção para refinar o resultado de busca. Pode-se adicionar vários filtros a uma mesma busca.


Buscar os artigos apresentados em um evento internacional de 2015, sobre loss of coolant, do autor Maprelian.

Autor: Maprelian

Título: loss of coolant

Tipo de publicação: Texto completo de evento

Ano de publicação: 2015

Para indexação dos documentos é utilizado o Thesaurus do INIS, especializado na área nuclear e utilizado em todos os países membros da International Atomic Energy Agency – IAEA , por esse motivo, utilize os termos de busca de assunto em inglês; isto não exclui a busca livre por palavras, apenas o resultado pode não ser tão relevante ou pertinente.

95% do RD apresenta o texto completo do documento com livre acesso, para aqueles que apresentam o significa que e o documento está sujeito as leis de direitos autorais, solicita-se nesses casos contatar a Biblioteca do IPEN, .

Ao efetuar a busca por um autor o RD apresentará uma relação de todos os trabalhos depositados no RD. No lado direito da tela são apresentados os coautores com o número de trabalhos produzidos em conjunto bem como os assuntos abordados e os respectivos anos de publicação agrupados.

O RD disponibiliza um quadro estatístico de produtividade, onde é possível visualizar o número dos trabalhos agrupados por tipo de coleção, a medida que estão sendo depositados no RD.

Na página inicial nas referências são sinalizados todos os autores IPEN, ao clicar nesse símbolo será aberta uma nova página correspondente à aquele autor – trata-se da página do pesquisador.

Na página do pesquisador, é possível verificar, as variações do nome, a relação de todos os trabalhos com texto completo bem como um quadro resumo numérico; há links para o Currículo Lattes e o Google Acadêmico ( quando esse for informado).



O gerenciamento do Repositório está a cargo da Biblioteca do IPEN. Constam neste RI, até o presente momento 20.950 itens que tanto podem ser artigos de periódicos ou de eventos nacionais e internacionais, dissertações e teses, livros, capítulo de livros e relatórios técnicos. Para participar do RI-IPEN é necessário que pelo menos um dos autores tenha vínculo acadêmico ou funcional com o Instituto. Nesta primeira etapa de funcionamento do RI, a coleta das publicações é realizada periodicamente pela equipe da Biblioteca do IPEN, extraindo os dados das bases internacionais tais como a Web of Science, Scopus, INIS, SciElo além de verificar o Currículo Lattes. O RI-IPEN apresenta também um aspecto inovador no seu funcionamento. Por meio de metadados específicos ele está vinculado ao sistema de gerenciamento das atividades do Plano Diretor anual do IPEN (SIGEPI). Com o objetivo de fornecer dados numéricos para a elaboração dos indicadores da Produção Cientifica Institucional, disponibiliza uma tabela estatística registrando em tempo real a inserção de novos itens. Foi criado um metadado que contém um número único para cada integrante da comunidade científica do IPEN. Esse metadado se transformou em um filtro que ao ser acionado apresenta todos os trabalhos de um determinado autor independente das variáveis na forma de citação do seu nome.

A elaboração do projeto do RI do IPEN foi iniciado em novembro de 2013, colocado em operação interna em julho de 2014 e disponibilizado na Internet em junho de 2015. Utiliza o software livre Dspace, desenvolvido pelo Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Para descrição dos metadados adota o padrão Dublin Core. É compatível com o Protocolo de Arquivos Abertos (OAI) permitindo interoperabilidade com repositórios de âmbito nacional e internacional.

1. Portaria IPEN-CNEN/SP nº 387, que estabeleceu os princípios que nortearam a criação do RDI, clique aqui.

2. A experiência do Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP) na criação de um Repositório Digital Institucional – RDI, clique aqui.

O Repositório Digital do IPEN é um equipamento institucional de acesso aberto, criado com o objetivo de reunir, preservar, disponibilizar e conferir maior visibilidade à Produção Científica publicada pelo Instituto, desde sua criação em 1956.

Operando, inicialmente como uma base de dados referencial o Repositório foi disponibilizado na atual plataforma, em junho de 2015. No Repositório está disponível o acesso ao conteúdo digital de artigos de periódicos, eventos, nacionais e internacionais, livros, capítulos, dissertações, teses e relatórios técnicos.

A elaboração do projeto do RI do IPEN foi iniciado em novembro de 2013, colocado em operação interna em julho de 2014 e disponibilizado na Internet em junho de 2015. Utiliza o software livre Dspace, desenvolvido pelo Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Para descrição dos metadados adota o padrão Dublin Core. É compatível com o Protocolo de Arquivos Abertos (OAI) permitindo interoperabilidade com repositórios de âmbito nacional e internacional.

O gerenciamento do Repositório está a cargo da Biblioteca do IPEN. Constam neste RI, até o presente momento 20.950 itens que tanto podem ser artigos de periódicos ou de eventos nacionais e internacionais, dissertações e teses, livros, capítulo de livros e relatórios técnicos. Para participar do RI-IPEN é necessário que pelo menos um dos autores tenha vínculo acadêmico ou funcional com o Instituto. Nesta primeira etapa de funcionamento do RI, a coleta das publicações é realizada periodicamente pela equipe da Biblioteca do IPEN, extraindo os dados das bases internacionais tais como a Web of Science, Scopus, INIS, SciElo além de verificar o Currículo Lattes. O RI-IPEN apresenta também um aspecto inovador no seu funcionamento. Por meio de metadados específicos ele está vinculado ao sistema de gerenciamento das atividades do Plano Diretor anual do IPEN (SIGEPI). Com o objetivo de fornecer dados numéricos para a elaboração dos indicadores da Produção Cientifica Institucional, disponibiliza uma tabela estatística registrando em tempo real a inserção de novos itens. Foi criado um metadado que contém um número único para cada integrante da comunidade científica do IPEN. Esse metadado se transformou em um filtro que ao ser acionado apresenta todos os trabalhos de um determinado autor independente das variáveis na forma de citação do seu nome.