Navegação Periódicos - Artigos por assunto "fabrication"

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  • IPEN-DOC 22555

    SOTENKO, MARIA; COLES, STUART R.; McEWEN, LAIN; CAMPOS, REJANE de ; BARKER, GUY; KIRWAN, KERRY. Biodegradation as natural fibre pre-treatment in composite manufacturing. Green Materials, v. 4, n. 1, p. 8-17, 2016.

    Palavras-Chave: biodegradation; fibers; composite materials; biomass; mechanical properties; scanning electron microscopy; manufacturing; fabrication

  • IPEN-DOC 27198

    SAVI, MATHEUS ; ANDRADE, MARCO A.B.; POTIENS, MARIA P.A. . Commercial filament testing for use in 3D printed phantoms. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, v. 174, p. 1-7, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.radphyschem.2020.108906

    Abstract: There is a great demand for phantoms by many areas of knowledge to be used for teaching or daily work. However, commercial phantoms are expensive and hard to obtain, especially in countries going through development. As an alternative, 3D printing can be the way to produce less expensive and reliable 3D phantoms. The goal of this study is to evaluate 14 available commercial filaments, in order to find if and how they can be used in 3D printed phantoms in computed tomography. Each material was printed as a 2 cm edge cube with rectilinear pattern and 60, 80 and 100% infill. The 80% infill of five other patterns were also printed and compared. Each 100% infill cube was weighted and had its density calculated. After that, the cubes were scanned in a Philips CT Brilliance 6 with 120 kVp, 200 mA, 2 mm slices and standard reconstruction. At the center of each cube, a ~120 mm2 region of interest was set to measure the mean Hounsfield Unit (HU) and its standard deviation. The software Origin was used to plot HU results for rectilinear pattern, determine linear trends with its R2 and compare achieved values with HU tissue range from literature. To confirm the response of HU values of selected tested materials in CT imaging as a function of percentage infill, a phantom prototype of a finger was 3D printed. The HU of the tested materials ranged from −516.2 ± 7.3 to 329.8 ± 18.9. All human tissues could be mimicked making use of these materials, except cortical bone above ~350 HU and tooth parts. The most promising filament was PLA + Cu, due to the multiple infill configuration that allows the resulting HU range to represent from adipose and skin tissue to marrow bone.

    Palavras-Chave: 3d printing; phantoms; fabrication; filaments; radiology; computerized tomography

  • IPEN-DOC 24794

    SILVA, N.F. ; SILVA, T.F.; CASTRO, M.C. ; LUZ, H.N. da; CALDAS, L.V.E. . Construction of the TH-GEM detector components for metrology of low energy ionizing radiation. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, v. 975, p. 1-4, 2018. DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/975/1/012043

    Abstract: The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector was originally proposed as a position sensitive detector to determine trajectories of particles prevenient from high-energy collisions. In order to study the potential of TH-GEM type detectors in dosimetric applications for low energy X-rays, specifically for the mammography standard qualities, it was proposed to construct a prototype with characteristics suitable for such use. In this work the general, structural and material parameters applicable to the necessary conditions were defined, establishing the process of construction of the components of a prototype.

    Palavras-Chave: brazilian organizations; electron multiplier detectors; fabrication; ionizing radiations; portable equipment; sensitivity; x-ray dosimetry

  • IPEN-DOC 04662

    AMBROZIO FILHO, F. ; GOLDENSTEIN, H.; GONCALVES, M. ; ROSSI, J.L. ; SOUZA, R.M.; YOSHIMURA, H.N.. Desenvolvimento de compositos de matriz metalica. Metallurgical Materials, v. 52, n. 452, p. 248-252, 1996.

    Palavras-Chave: composite materials; fabrication; powder metallurgy; solidification; silicon carbides

  • IPEN-DOC 22643

    PORTO, LUCIANA V.F.M. ; FUKUMORI, NEUZA T.O. ; MATSUDA, MARGARETH M.N. . Determination of the worst case for cleaning validation of equipment used in the radiopharmaceutical production of lyophilized reagents for sup(99)Tc labeling. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, v. 52, n. 1, p. 105-112, 2016. DOI: 10.1590/S1984-82502016000100012

    Abstract: Cleaning validation, a requirement of the current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) for Drugs, consists of documented evidence that cleaning procedures are capable of removing residues to predetermined acceptance levels. This report describes a strategy for the selection of the worst case product for the production of lyophilized reagents (LRs) for labeling with 99mTc from the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/São Paulo). The strategy is based on the calculation of a “worst case index” that incorporates information about drug solubility, cleaning difficulty, and occupancy rate in the production line. It allowed a reduction in the required number of validations considering the possible manufacturing flow of a given product and the subsequent flow, thus facilitating the process by reducing operation time and cost. The products identified as “worst case” were LRs PUL-TEC and MIBI-TEC.

    Palavras-Chave: cleaning; validation; equipment; radiopharmaceuticals; production; lyophilization; reagents; technetium isotopes; labelling; drugs; fabrication

  • IPEN-DOC 23197

    SANTOS, LAURO R. dos ; DURAZZO, MICHELANGELO ; CARVALHO, ELITA F.U. de ; RIELLA, HUMBERTO G. . Effect of Al(OH)3 on the sintering of UO2–Gd2O3 fuel pellets with addition of U3O8 from recycle. Journal of Nuclear Materials, v. 493, p. 30-39, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.jnucmat.2017.05.050

    Abstract: The incorporation of gadolinium as burnable poison directly into nuclear fuel is important for reactivity compensation, which enables longer fuel cycles. The function of the burnable poison fuel is to control the neutron population in the reactor core during its startup and the beginning of the fuel burning cycle to extend the use of the fuel. The implementation of UO2-Gd2O3 poisoned fuel in Brazil has been proposed according to the future requirements established for the Angra-2 nuclear power plant. The UO2 powder used is produced from the Ammonium Uranyl Carbonate (AUC). The incorporation of Gd2O3 powder directly into the AUC-derived UO2 powder by dry mechanical blending is the most attractive process, because of its simplicity. Nevertheless, processing by this method leads to difficulties while obtaining sintered pellets with the minimum required density. The cause of the low densities is the bad sintering behavior of the UO2-Gd2O3 mixed fuel, which shows a blockage in the sintering process that hinders the densification. This effect has been overcome by microdoping of the fuel with small quantities of aluminum. The process for manufacturing the fuel inevitably generates uranium-rich scraps from various sources. This residue is reincorporated into the production process in the form of U3O8 powder additions. The addition of U3O8 also hinders densification in sintering. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of both aluminum and U3O8 additives on the density of fuel pellets after sintering. As the effects of these additives are counterposed, this work studied the combined effect thereof, seeking to find an applicable composition for the production process. The experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of aluminum, in the form of Al(OH)3, as an additive to promote increase in the densification of the (U,Gd)O2 pellets during sintering, even with high additions of U3O8 recycled from the manufacturing process.

    Palavras-Chave: sintering; gadolinium oxides; uranium oxides; nuclear fuels; fabrication; burnable poisons; aluminium oxides

  • IPEN-DOC 09076

    SILVA, S.; SALVADORI, M.C.; KAWAKITA, K.; PEREIRA, M.T.; ROSSI, W. ; CATTANI, M.. Fabrication of diamond flow controller micronozzles. Diamond Related Materials, v. 11, n. 2, p. 237-241, 2002.

    Palavras-Chave: nozzles; flowmeters; diamonds; fabrication; tungsten; wires; chemical vapor deposition

  • IPEN-DOC 23185

    OLIANI, WASHINGTON L. ; PARRA, DUCLERC F. ; KOMATSU, LUIZ G.H. ; LINCOPAN, NILTON; RANGARI, VIJAYA K.; LUGAO, ADEMAR B. . Fabrication of polypropylene/silver nanocomposites for biocidal applications. Materials Science and Engineering C, v. 75, p. 845-853, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2017.02.109

    Abstract: This paper presents a study on biocidal effect of polymer nanocomposite films of gamma irradiated polypropylene (PP) and silver nanoparticles. The modified polypropylene was obtained from isotactic polypropylene (iPP) in pellets form by irradiation with gamma rays in the presence of acetylene. A new morphology with long chain branching of PP and distinct rheology is obtained by this process. The blend of 50/50 wt neat PP and PP modified by gamma radiation were further mixed using a twin screw extruder. The AgNPs were infused into this polymer blend at different concentrations of: 0.1%; 0.25%; 05%; 1.0%; 1.0% (PVP), 2.0% and 4.0% by wt%. These polymer nanocomposites were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cytotoxicity test and Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion techniques. The bactericidal effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were assessed in detail.

    Palavras-Chave: nanocomposites; polypropylene; acetylene; branching ratio; calorimetry; concentration ratio; fabrication; films; gamma radiation; transmission electron microscopy; x-ray diffraction; nanoparticles; pseudomonas; pvp; raman spectroscopy; scanning electron microscopy; silver; staphylococcus; thermal gravimetric analysis; x radiation

  • IPEN-DOC 18188

    DURAZZO, MICHELANGELO ; ROCHA, CLAUDIO J. da ; MESTNIK FILHO, JOSE ; LEAL NETO, RICARDO M. . Fabrication of powder from ductile U-Mo alloys for use as nuclear dispersion. Materials Science Forum, v. 727-728, p. 362-367, 2012.

    Palavras-Chave: alloys; chemical properties; enrichment; gamma radiation; mechanical properties; uranium-molybdenum fuels; research and test reactors; uranium; iear-1 reactor; dispersion nuclear fuels; fabrication; highly enriched uranium

  • IPEN-DOC 23515

    CARDOSO, ROBERTA M.; SOUZA, CARLA D. de ; ROSTELATO, MARIA E.C.M. ; ARAKI, KOITI. Highly efficient method for production of radioactive silver seed cores for brachytherapy. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, v. 120, p. 76-81, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2016.11.023

    Abstract: A simple and highly efficient (shorter reaction time and almost no rework) method for production of iodine based radioactive silver seed cores for brachytherapy is described. The method allows almost quantitative deposition of iodine-131 on dozens of silver substrates at once, with even distribution of activity per core and insignificant amounts of liquid and solid radioactive wastes, allowing the fabrication of cheaper radioactive iodine seeds for brachytherapy.

    Palavras-Chave: brachytherapy; deposition; fabrication; iodine 125; iodine 131; isotope production; liquids; radioactive wastes; radioisotopes; seeds; silver; substrates

  • IPEN-DOC 14023

    OLIVEIRA, FABIO B.V. de; RIELLA, HUMBERTO G.. Hydrogen absorption-desorption and gamma-UMo nuclear fuel powder production. Materials Science Forum, v. 591-593, p. 201-205, 2008.

    Palavras-Chave: fuel elements; uranium alloys; molybdenum alloys; hydration; dehydration; embrittlement; fuels; fabrication; powders

  • IPEN-DOC 06279

    CASTANHO, S.R.H.M. ; MORENO, R.; FIERRO, J.L.G.. Influence of process conditions on the surface oxidation of silicon nitride green compacts. Journal of Materials Science, v. 32, p. 157-162, 1997.

    Palavras-Chave: silicon nitrides; surfaces; chemical properties; ceramics; fabrication; oxidation; photoelectron spectroscopy; x radiation

  • IPEN-DOC 23040

    DURAZZO, M. ; SALIBA-SILVA, A.M. ; MARTINS, I.C. ; CARVALHO, E.F.U. de ; RIELLA, H.G. . Manufacturing low enriched uranium metal by magnesiothermic reduction of UF4. Annals of Nuclear Energy, v. 110, p. 874-885, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.anucene.2017.07.033

    Abstract: This work presents an experimental description of thermal and physical studies to attain a practical manufacturing process of uranium metal enriched to 20% U235 (LEU – Low Enriched Uranium) by metallothermic reduction of UF4, with nuclear purity, for reduced amounts (1000 g of uranium) and with radioactive safety. Uranium metal is needed to produce nuclear fuel elements based on uranium silicide (intermetallic U3Si2) and irradiation targets to produce Mo99. This process is a part of Brazilian efforts to fabricate the fuel elements for its research reactors, primarily aiming at the production of radioisotopes for nuclear medicine. The magnesiothermic reduction is influenced by variables which are related to the starting material UF4 and the thermal conditions for its reduction. These variables are investigated. The physical arrangement of the crucible/reduction reactor/furnace system and the management of the furnace thermal input in the reduction reactor during the heating were studied. Thermal simulation experiments provided delineation for the reactants’ thermal progress before the ignition of the metalothermic reaction. The heat input to the reduction system has proved to be the main variable that influenced the efficiency of the process. The levels of metallic yield and reproducibility have been improved, making the production process reproductive and economically viable. The typical yield in the production of uranium metal was above 80%. Unrecovered uranium metal is present in the MgF2 slag and can be recovered at the level of 96% yield. The process of recovering the uranium from the slag is also discussed.

    Palavras-Chave: uranium; metals; nuclear fuels; materials recovery; enriched uranium; fuels; fabrication

  • IPEN-DOC 27433

    DE PRETTO, LUCAS R. ; AMARAL, MARCELO M.; FREITAS, ANDERSON Z. de ; RAELE, MARCUS P. . Nondestructive evaluation of fused filament fabrication 3D printed structures using optical coherence tomography. Rapid Prototyping Journal, v. 26, n. 10, p. 1853-1860, 2020. DOI: 10.1108/RPJ-12-2019-0314

    Abstract: Purpose – The quality of components under fused filament fabrication (FFF) is related to the correct filament spacing and bonding of successively deposited layers and is evaluated mainly by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). However, it is a destructive technique and real-time evaluation is not possible. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), on the other hand, is an optical method that acquires cross-sectional images non-invasively and in real-time. Therefore, this paper aims to propose and validate the use of OCT as a non-destructive quality evaluation tool for FFF using Polylactic Acid (PLA) filaments. Design/methodology/approach – PLA three-dimensional (3D) printed samples were made in a variety of nozzle temperatures and mesh spacing. These samples were fractured in liquid nitrogen and inspected using SEM (as a gold standard) to evaluate dimensions and morphology, then the samples were evaluated by OCT in the same area, allowing the results confrontation. Findings – Our results indicate a good correlation between OCT and SEM for the dimensional assessment of layers. When the filament was extruded in lower temperatures, the OCT images presented sharply defined interfaces between layers, in contrary to higher nozzle temperatures, denoting better fusion between them. However, higher extruding temperatures are incurred in greater deviations from nominal dimensions of the mesh. Finally, we demonstrate the advantage of a full 3D tomographic reconstruction to inspect within a FFF sample, which enabled the inspection of “hidden” information, not visible on a single cross-sectional cut. Originality/value – This paper proposes OCT as a novel and nondestructive evaluation tool for FFF.

    Palavras-Chave: nondestructive analysis; filaments; fabrication; tomography; adhesion; three-dimensional calculations; coherence length; scanning electron microscopy; deposition; simulation

  • IPEN-DOC 08262

    CATEN, C.S.; RIBEIRO, J.L.; BERNARDIN, A.M.; FRAJNDLICH, E.U.C. ; RIELLA, H.G.. Um novo metodo para otimizacao de formulacoes ceramicas. Revista Brasileira de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, v. 3, n. 1, p. 1-11, 2001.

    Palavras-Chave: ceramics; fabrication; optimization; mathematical models; statistics

  • IPEN-DOC 05049

    CASTANHO, S.R.H.M. . Procesamiento de nitruro de silicio por tecnicas de filtracion coloidal. Boletin de la Sociedade Española de Ceramica y Vidrio, v. 35, n. 4, p. 285-286, 1996.

    Palavras-Chave: silicon nitrides; filtration; colloids; rheology; sintering; fabrication

  • IPEN-DOC 24381

    SILVA, DIEGO S. da ; WETTER, NIKLAUS U. ; ROSSI, WAGNER de ; KASSAB, LUCIANA R.P.; SAMAD, RICARDO E. . Production and characterization of femtosecond laser-written double line waveguides in heavy metal oxide glasses. Optical Materials, v. 75, p. 267-273, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.optmat.2017.10.033

    Abstract: We report the fabrication and characterization of double line waveguides directly written in tellurite and germanate glasses using a femtosecond laser delivering 30 mu J, 80 fs pulses at 4 kHz repetition rate. The double line waveguides produced presented internal losses inferior to 2.0 dB/cm. The output mode profile and the M-2 measurements indicate multimodal guiding behavior. A better beam quality for the GeO2 - Pbo waveguide was observed when compared with TeO2 - ZnO glass. Raman spectroscopy of the waveguides showed structural modification of the glassy network and indicates that a negative refractive index modification occurs at the focus of the laser beam, therefore allowing for light guiding in between two closely spaced laser written lines. The refractive index change at 632 nm is around 10(-4), and the structural changes in the laser focal region of the writing, evaluated by Raman spectroscopy, corroborated our findings that these materials are potential candidates for optical waveguides and passive components. To the best of our knowledge, the two double line configuration demonstrated in the present work was not reported before for germanate or tellurite glasses.

    Palavras-Chave: lasers; waveguides; glass; fabrication; raman spectroscopy; laser radiation

  • IPEN-DOC 27370

    CASTRO, M.C. ; SILVA, N.F. ; CALDAS, L.V.E. . Some characterization tests for an extrapolation chamber in CT standard beams in a specific chamber depth. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, v. 8, n. 1A, p. 1-6, 2020. DOI: 10.15392/bjrs.v8i1A.1085

    Abstract: Among all diagnostic exams, the computed tomography (CT) is responsible for the highest dose values to the patients. So, the radiation doses in this procedure must be accurate for the dosimetry procedure in CT scanner beams making use of pencil ionization chambers with sensitive volume lengths of 10 cm. However, there is no primary standard system for this kind of radiation beam. An extrapolation ionization chamber, built at the Cali-bration Laboratory (LCI) was tested to establish a CT primary standard. The aim of this work was to perform some characterization tests (short- and medium-term stabilities, energy dependence, angular dependence) in the standard X-ray beams established for computed tomography at the LCI in a specific chamber depth (1.25 mm). The results showed to be within the international recommended limits except for the energy dependence.

    Palavras-Chave: aluminium; computerized tomography; depth; electrodes; energy dependence; extrapolation chambers; fabrication; radiation detectors; stability; testing; x radiation

  • IPEN-DOC 22836

    NEGRO, MIGUEL L.M. ; DURAZZO, MICHELANGELO ; MESQUITA, MARCO A. de; CARVALHO, ELITA F.U. de ; ANDRADE, DELVONEI A. de . Studies on production planning of dispersion type U3Si2-Al fuel in plate-type fuel elements for nuclear research reactors. World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, v. 6, p. 217-231, 2016. DOI: 10.4236/wjnst.2016.64023

    Abstract: Several fuel plants that supply nuclear research reactors need to increase their production capacity in order to meet the growing demand for this kind of nuclear fuel. After the enlargement of the production capacity of such plants, there will be the need of managing the new production level. That level is usually the industrial one, which poses challenges to the managerial staff. Such challenges come from the fact that several of those plants operate today on a laboratorial basis and do not carry inventory. The change to the industrial production pace asks for new actions regarding planning and control. The production process based on the hydrolysis of UF6 is not a frequent production route for nuclear fuel. Production planning and control of the industrial level of fuel production on that production route is a new field of studies. The approach of the paper consists in the creation of a mathematical linear model for minimization of costs. We also carried out a sensitivity analysis of the model. The results help in minimizing costs in different production schemes and show the need of inventory. The mathematical model is dynamic, so that it issues better results if performed monthly. The management team will therefore have a clearer view of the costs and of the new, necessary production and inventory levels.

    Palavras-Chave: fabrication; uranium silicides; fuels; reactors; production; planning; control; mathematical models

  • IPEN-DOC 06278

    CASTANHO, S.R.H.M. ; FIERRO, J.L.G.; MORENO, R.. Surface oxidation of Sisub(3)Nsub(4) green compacts: Effect of sintering aids. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, v. 17, p. 383-391, 1997.

    Palavras-Chave: silicon nitrides; surfaces; chemical properties; photoelectron spectroscopy; x radiation; ceramics; fabrication; rheology; yttrium oxides; aluminium oxides

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A elaboração do projeto do RI do IPEN foi iniciado em novembro de 2013, colocado em operação interna em julho de 2014 e disponibilizado na Internet em junho de 2015. Utiliza o software livre Dspace, desenvolvido pelo Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Para descrição dos metadados adota o padrão Dublin Core. É compatível com o Protocolo de Arquivos Abertos (OAI) permitindo interoperabilidade com repositórios de âmbito nacional e internacional.

O gerenciamento do Repositório está a cargo da Biblioteca do IPEN. Constam neste RI, até o presente momento 20.950 itens que tanto podem ser artigos de periódicos ou de eventos nacionais e internacionais, dissertações e teses, livros, capítulo de livros e relatórios técnicos. Para participar do RI-IPEN é necessário que pelo menos um dos autores tenha vínculo acadêmico ou funcional com o Instituto. Nesta primeira etapa de funcionamento do RI, a coleta das publicações é realizada periodicamente pela equipe da Biblioteca do IPEN, extraindo os dados das bases internacionais tais como a Web of Science, Scopus, INIS, SciElo além de verificar o Currículo Lattes. O RI-IPEN apresenta também um aspecto inovador no seu funcionamento. Por meio de metadados específicos ele está vinculado ao sistema de gerenciamento das atividades do Plano Diretor anual do IPEN (SIGEPI). Com o objetivo de fornecer dados numéricos para a elaboração dos indicadores da Produção Cientifica Institucional, disponibiliza uma tabela estatística registrando em tempo real a inserção de novos itens. Foi criado um metadado que contém um número único para cada integrante da comunidade científica do IPEN. Esse metadado se transformou em um filtro que ao ser acionado apresenta todos os trabalhos de um determinado autor independente das variáveis na forma de citação do seu nome.