INSTITUTO DE PESQUISAS ENERGÉTICAS E NUCLEARES
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Navegação Periódicos - Artigos por Agências de fomento "Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)"

Navegação Periódicos - Artigos por Agências de fomento "Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)"

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  • IPEN-DOC 23152

    BERECZKI, ALLAN ; WETTER, NIKLAUS U. . 100W continuous linearly polarized, high beam quality output from standard side-pumped Nd:YAG laser modules. Optics and Laser Technology, v. 96, p. 271-275, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.optlastec.2017.05.020

    Abstract: Dynamically stable operation with joined stability zones of a linearly polarized resonator is shown for a laser containing two diode side-pumped Nd:YAG rods. The unpolarized resonator generated 115W of output. When polarized by a Brewster plate, it reached 100.5W of output power at a beam quality M2 < 2. Best measured beam quality was of 1.1 and 1.3 in the x and y directions respectively, with 76W of 95% polarized output. The output power achieved is, to our knowledge, the highest reported for continuous polarized, fundamental-mode lasers using standard side-pumped Nd:YAG modules.

    Palavras-Chave: neodymium lasers; lasers; resonators; solid state lasers; temperature dependence; diode-pumped solid state lasers; beams; quality factor

  • IPEN-DOC 24704

    ARAGAO, LUIZ E.O.C.; ANDERSON, LIANA O.; FONSECA, MARISA G.; ROSAN, THAIS M.; VEDOVATO, LAURA B.; WAGNER, FABIEN H.; SILVA, CAMILA V.J.; SILVA JUNIOR, CELSO H.L.; ARAI, EGIDIO; AGUIAR, ANA P.; BARLOW, JOS; BERENGUER, ERIKA; DEETER, MERRITT N.; DOMINGUES, LUCAS G. ; GATTI, LUCIANA ; GLOOR, MANUEL; MALHI, YADVINDER; MARENGO, JOSE A.; MILLER, JOHN B.; PHILLIPS, OLIVER L.; SAATCHI, SASSAN. 21st Century drought-related fires counteract the decline of Amazon deforestation carbon emissions. Nature Communications, v. 9, n. 536, 2018. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-017-02771-y

    Abstract: Tropical carbon emissions are largely derived from direct forest clearing processes. Yet, emissions from drought-induced forest fires are, usually, not included in national-level carbon emission inventories. Here we examine Brazilian Amazon drought impacts on fire incidence and associated forest fire carbon emissions over the period 2003-2015. We show that despite a 76% decline in deforestation rates over the past 13 years, fire incidence increased by 36% during the 2015 drought compared to the preceding 12 years. The 2015 drought had the largest ever ratio of active fire counts to deforestation, with active fires occurring over an area of 799,293 km(2). Gross emissions from forest fires (989 +/- 504 Tg CO2 year(-1)) alone are more than half as great as those from old-growth forest deforestation during drought years. We conclude that carbon emission inventories intended for accounting and developing policies need to take account of substantial forest fire emissions not associated to the deforestation process.

    Palavras-Chave: carbon dioxide; deforestation; forests; monitoring; greenhouse gases; tropical regions; climates; droughts; fires; amazon river; brazil

  • IPEN-DOC 24719

    CARVALHO, SABRINA G.M. ; MUCCILLO, ELIANA N.S. ; MUCCILLO, REGINALDO . AC electric field assisted pressureless sintering zirconia: 3mol% yttria solid electrolyte. Physica Status Solidi A: applications and materials science, v. 215, n. 6, p. 1700647-1 - 1700647-5, 2018. DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201700647

    Abstract: 3mol% yttria ionic conductors are sintered by applying AC electric fields with frequencies in the 0.5-1.0kHz range at 1100 degrees C. The sintering experiments are conducted in pressed pellets positioned between platinum electrodes inside a dilatometer furnace. The dilatometer is modified in order to allow for the simultaneous monitoring of thickness shrinkage, electric voltage, and current across the pellet. The results show that the higher the frequency of the electric field, the higher the attained shrinkage and the apparent density of the pellets. Increasing the frequency of the applied electric field leads to an increase in the Joule heating promoted by the electric current pulse through the polycrystalline ceramic sample. A higher frequency therefore leads to higher amount of thermal energy delivered to the sample, favoring enhanced densification. The ionic resistivity decreases in pellets sintered with increasing frequency of the applied electric field. We suggest that Joule heating favors pore elimination and the removal of chemical species at the space charge region, inhibiting the blocking of oxide ions at the interfaces.

    Palavras-Chave: ac systems; ceramics; dilatometry; electric fields; electric impedance; hz range; ionic conductivity; joule heating; pellets; polycrystals; porosity; shrinkage; sintered materials; sintering; density; solid electrolytes; temperature range 1000-4000 k; thickness; yttrium oxides; zirconium oxides

  • IPEN-DOC 26619

    NANDENHA, J. ; NAGAHAMA, I.H.F. ; YAMASHITA, J.Y. ; FONTES, E.H. ; AYOUB, J.M.S. ; SOUZA, R.F.B. de ; FONSECA, F.C. ; NETO, A.O. . Activation of methane on PdZn/C electrocatalysts in an acidic electrolyte at low temperatures. International Journal of Electrochemical Science, v. 14, n. 12, p. 10819-10834, 2019. DOI: 10.20964/2019.12.76

    Abstract: PdZn/C electrocatalysts were prepared by sodium borohydride utilized as reducing agent for activation methane in an acidic medium at room temperature and in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) at 80°C. The materials prepared were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The diffractograms of the PdZn/C electrocatalysts showed only peaks associated with Pd face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. Cyclic voltammograms (CV) of all electrocatalysts after adsorption of methane shown an increment in current during the anodic scan, this effect was more pronounced for Pd(70)Zn(30)/C. In situ ATR-FTIR (Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared) experiments was not observed the formation of intermediates adsorbed for PdZn/C electrocatalysts, this behavior indicated that the methane oxidation occurs by parallel mechanisms. Polarization curves at 80°C in PEMFC show that Pd(90)Zn(10)/C has superior performance over the other electrocatalysts in methane oxidation.

    Palavras-Chave: methane; palladium; zinc; electrocatalysts; sodium compounds; borohydrides; reduction; oxidation; polarization; electrolytes; diagrams

  • IPEN-DOC 26397

    QUEIROZ, CARLA M.S. ; MACHADO, ARTHUR P. ; PAIVA, ANA R.N. ; ANTONIASSI, RODOLFO M. ; VAZ, JORGE M. ; SPINACE, ESTEVAM V. . Active Pt/CeO2 catalysts prepared by an alcohol‑reduction process for low‑temperature CO‑PROX reaction. Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy, v. 8, n. 3, p. 1-8, 2019. DOI: 10.1007/s40243-019-0155-y

    Abstract: Pt/CeO2 catalysts were prepared with 0.5 and 1 wt% of Pt loadings by an alcohol-reduction process using a solution of ethylene glycol and water as a reducing agent and solvent. The obtained catalysts were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Transmission electron micrographs showed Pt nanoparticles with average sizes of 2.2 and 2.4 nm for Pt content of 0.5 and 1 wt%, respectively. The preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen-rich stream (CO-PROX reaction) was studied in the temperature range of 25–150 °C. Pt/CeO2 catalysts showed maximum CO conversions in the range of 80–98% and CO2 selectivity in the range of 50–70% at 50 °C.

    Palavras-Chave: catalysts; cerium; cerium oxides; platinum; alcohols; reduction; hydrogen; carbon monoxide; selective catalytic reduction

  • IPEN-DOC 26398

    PAPAI, RODRIGO; FREITAS, MILLENA A.S. de; FONSECA, KARINA T. da; ALMEIDA, GILMAR A. de ; SILVEIRA, JOÃO R.F. da; SILVA, ANDRE L.N. da; FERREIRA NETO, JOÃO B.; SANTOS, CELIA A.L. dos; LANDGRAF, FERNANDO J.G.; LUZ, MACIEL S.. Additivity of optical emissions applied to neodymium and praseodymium quantification in metallic didymium and (Nd,Pr)-Fe-B alloy samples by low-resolution atomic emission spectrometry: an evaluation of the mathematical approach used to solve spectral interferences. Analytica Chimica Acta, v. 1085, p. 21-28, 2019. DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2019.07.049

    Abstract: In this work, the effectiveness of a mathematical approach to solve the spectral interferences involved in the optical emission of two chemical species (neodymium and praseodymium) when using monochromators with low-resolution in atomic spectrometry is evaluated. Although recent technological advances have promoted spectrometers equipped with high-resolution monochromators, which have a great instrumental capability in the separation of nearby lines and consequently avoid spectral interferences, many laboratories still have old spectrometers installed with insufficient resolution to overcome such interferences. In order to evaluate a mathematical approach based on Lambert-Beer's Law, the optical emissions of neodymium and praseodymium were monitored on a low-resolution (200 pm) flame atomic emission spectrometry (F-AES). These two elements were strategically chosen as an application model because they exhibit similar physicochemical properties, joint occurrence in nature and because they are increasingly used in the manufacture of super-magnets, a material increasingly required by the high technology industry. The effectiveness of the mathematical approach was evaluated in three different ways: (i) by recovery of the analytes in synthetic mixtures containing known quantities of the species; (ii) by spike and recovery trials on a representative blend of dissolved samples and (iii) by comparing the results obtained with another analytical method: Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) with a higher spectral resolution. The results indicate the effectiveness of this simple mathematical approach, allow the “survival” of instruments equipped with low-resolution monochromators and demonstrate the applicability of this approach to spectral correction. In addition, this work contributes an analytical method for the quantification of neodymium and praseodymium in metallic alloy samples involved in the production of super-magnets, aiding in the strict quality control of these materials.

    Palavras-Chave: additives; emission; absorption spectroscopy; neodymium; praseodymium; spectra; interference; atoms

  • IPEN-DOC 27125

    BELLEZZO, MURILLO ; FONSECA, GABRIEL P.; VONCKEN, ROBERT; VERRIJSSEN, AN-SOFIE; VAN BEVEREN, CELINE; ROELOFS, ERIK; YORIYAZ, HELIO ; RENIERS, BRIGITTE; VAN LIMBERGEN, EVERT J.; BERB EE, MAAIKE; VERHAEGEN, FRANK. Advanced design, simulation, and dosimetry of a novel rectal applicator for contact brachytherapy with a conventional HDR 192Ir source. Brachytherapy, v. 19, n. 4, p. 544-553, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.brachy.2020.03.009

    Abstract: PURPOSE: Dose escalation yields higher complete response to rectal tumors, which may enable the omission of surgery. Dose escalation using 50 kVp contact x-ray brachytherapy (CXB) allow the treatment of a selective volume, resulting in low toxicity and organs-at-risk preservation. However, the use of CXB devices is limited because of its high cost and lack of treatment planning tools. Hence, the MAASTRO applicator (for HDR 192Ir sources) was developed and characterized by measurements and Monte Carlo simulations to be a cost-effective alternative to CXB devices. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A cylindrical applicator with lateral shielding was designed to be used with a rectoscope using its tip as treatment surface. Both the applicator and the rectoscope have a slanted edge to potentially allow easier placement against tumors. The applicator design was achieved by Monte Carlo modeling and validated experimentally with film dosimetry, using the Papillon 50 (P50) device as reference. RESULTS: The applicator delivers CXB doses in less than 9 min using a 20375 U source for a treatment area of approximately 20 20 mm2 at 2 mm depth. Normalized at 2 mm, the dose falloff for depths of 0 mm, 5 mm, and 10 mm are 130%, 70%, and 43% for the P50 and 140%, 67%, and 38% for the MAASTRO applicator, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The MAASTRO applicator was designed to use HDR 192Ir sources to deliver a dose distribution similar to those of CXB devices. The applicator may provide a cost-effective solution for endoluminal boosting with clinical treatment planning system integration.

    Palavras-Chave: brachytherapy; monte carlo method; rectal administration; iridium 192; dose rates; radiation sources; simulation; radiotherapy; neoplasms; film dosimetry

  • IPEN-DOC 27786

    RAMOS, LUIZ D.; MANTOVANI, MARIANA C.; SARTORI, ADRIANO; DUTRA, FERNANDO; STEVANI, CASSIUS V.; BECHARA, ETELVINO J.H.. Aerobic co-oxidation of hemoglobin and aminoacetone, a putative source of methylglyoxal. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, v. 166, p. 178-186, 2021. DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2021.02.023

    Abstract: Aminoacetone (1-aminopropan-2-one), a putative minor biological source of methylglyoxal, reacts like other α-aminoketones such as 6-aminolevulinic acid (first heme precursor) and 1,4-diaminobutanone (a microbicide) yielding electrophilic α-oxoaldehydes, ammonium ion and reactive oxygen species by metal- and hemeprotein-catalyzed aerobic oxidation. A plethora of recent reports implicates triose phosphate-generated methylglyoxal in protein crosslinking and DNA addition, leading to age-related disorders, including diabetes. Importantly, methylglyoxal-treated hemoglobin adds four water-exposed arginine residues, which may compromise its physiological role and potentially serve as biomarkers for diabetes. This paper reports on the co-oxidation of aminoacetone and oxyhemoglobin in normally aerated phosphate buffer, leading to structural changes in hemoglobin, which can be attributed to the addition of aminoacetone-produced methylglyoxal to the protein. Hydroxyl radical-promoted chemical damage to hemoglobin may also occur in parallel, which is suggested by EPR-spin trapping studies with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide and ethanol. Concomitantly, oxyhemoglobin is oxidized to methemoglobin, as indicated by characteristic CD spectral changes in the Soret and visible regions. Overall, these findings may contribute to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying human diseases associated with hemoglobin dysfunctions and with aminoacetone in metabolic alterations related to excess glycine and threonine.

    Palavras-Chave: hemoglobin; electron transfer; amino acids; acetone; glyoxal; peroxy radicals

  • IPEN-DOC 27704

    OLIVEIRA, DANIEL C.F. dos S.; MONTILLA-ROSERO, ELENA; LOPES, FABIO J. da S. ; MORAIS, FERNANDO G. ; LANDULFO, EDUARDO ; HOELZEMANN, JUDITH J.. Aerosol properties in the atmosphere of Natal/Brazil measured by an AERONET Sun-photometer. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 28, n. 8, p. 9806-9823, 2021. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-11373-z

    Abstract: We analyzed data measured by a Sun-photometer of the RIMA-AERONET network with the purpose to characterize the aerosol properties in the atmosphere over Natal, state capital of Rio Grande do Norte, at the coast of Northeast Brazil. Aerosol Optical Depth, Ångström Exponent, Volume Size Distribution, Single Scattering Albedo, Complex Refractive Index, Asymmetry Factor, and Precipitable Water were analyzed from August 2017 to March 2018. In addition, MODIS and CALIOP observations, local Lidar measurements, and modeled backward trajectories were analyzed in a case study on February 9, 2018, that consistently confirmed the identification of a persistent aerosol layer below 4 km agl. Aerosols present in the atmosphere of Natal showed monthly mean Aerosol Optical Depth at 500 nm below 0.15 (~ 75%), monthly means of the Ångström Exponent at 440–670 nm between 0.30 and 0.70 (~ 69%), bimodal Volume Size Distribution is dominantly coarse mode, Single Scattering Albedo at 440 nm is 0.80, Refractive Index - Real Part around 1.50, Refractive Index - Imaginary Part ranging from 0.01 to 0.04, and the Asymmetry Factor ranged from 0.73 to 0.80. The aerosol typing during the measurement period showed that atmospheric aerosol over Natal is mostly composed of mixed aerosol (58.10%), marine aerosol (34.80%), mineral dust (6.30%), and biomass burning aerosols (0.80%). Backward trajectories identified that 51% of the analyzed air masses over Natal originated from the African continent.

    Palavras-Chave: satellite atmospheres; sun; photometers; optical radar; optical systems; aerial monitoring; atmospheres; optical properties; dusts; environment; environmental impacts; physical properties; biomass; brazil; africa; climatic change

  • IPEN-DOC 27164

    BENALCAZAR JALKH, E.B.; BERGAMO, E.T.P.; MONTEIRO, K.N.; CESAR, P.F.; GENOVA, L.A. ; LOPES, A.C.O.; LISBOA FILHO, P.N.; COELHO, P.G.; SANTOS, C.F.; BORTOLIN, F.; PIZA, M.M.T.; BONFANTE, E.A.. Aging resistance of an experimental zirconia-toughened alumina composite for large span dental prostheses: optical and mechanical characterization. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, v. 104, p. 1-9, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2020.103659

    Abstract: Purpose: To synthesize a zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) composite with 85% alumina matrix reinforced by 15% zirconia and to characterize its optical and mechanical properties before and after artificial aging, to be compared with a conventional dental zirconia (3Y-TZP). Material and methods: After syntheses, ZTA and 3Y-TZP powders were uniaxially and isostatically pressed. Greenbody samples were sintered and polished to obtain 80 disc-shaped specimens per group (12 x 1 mm, ISO 6872:2015). The crystalline content and microstructure were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Optical properties were determined by the calculation of contrast ratio (CR) and translucency parameter (TP) using reflectance data. Mechanical properties were assessed by Vickers hardness, fracture toughness and biaxial flexural strength test (BFS). All analyses were conducted before and after artificial aging (20h, 134 °C, 0.22 MPa). Optical parameters and microhardness differences were evaluated through repeated-measures analysis of variance (p < 0.05). BFS data were analyzed using Weibull statistics (95% CI). Results: The synthesis of the experimental ZTA composite was successful, with 98% of theoretical density, as shown in the SEM images. XRD patterns revealed typical zirconia and alumina crystalline phases. ZTA optical properties parameters showed no effect of aging, with a high CR and low TP values denoting a high maskingability. 3Y-TZP presented lower masking-ability and aging significantly affected its optical properties. ZTA Vickers hardness, fracture toughness and Weibull parameters, including characteristic stress and Weibull modulus were not influenced by aging, while 3Y-TZP presented a significant decrease in characteristic stress and increase in fracture toughness after aging. The ZTA probability of survival for missions of 300 and 500 MPa was estimated at ~99% validating its use for 3-unit posterior fixed dental prostheses (FDP), and no different from conventional 3Y-TZP. At high-stress mission (800 MPa) a significant decrease in probability of survival was observed for aged 3Y-TZP (84%) and for immediate and aged ZTA (73 and 82% respectively). Conclusion: The ZTA composite presented a dense microstructure, with preservation of the crystalline content, optical and mechanical properties after artificial aging, which encourages future research to validate its potential use for large span FDP.

    Palavras-Chave: aluminium oxides; zirconium oxides; aging; ceramics; microstructure; optical properties; optical microscopes

  • IPEN-DOC 27560

    JALKH, ERNESTO B.B.; MONTEIRO, KELLI N.; CESAR, PAULO F.; GENOVA, LUIS A. ; BERGAMO, EDMARA T.P.; LOPES, ADOLFO C. de O.; LIMA, ERICK; LISBOA-FILHO, PAULO N.; CAMPOS, TIAGO M.B.; WITEK, LUKASZ; COELHO, PAULO G.; BORGES, ANA F.S.; BONFANTE, ESTEVAM A.. Aging resistant ZTA composite for dental applications: microstructural, optical and mechanical characterization. Dental Materials, v. 36, n. 9, p. 1190-1200, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2020.05.011

    Abstract: Objective. To synthesize a zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) composite with 70% aluminareinforced by 30% zirconia for dental applications and to characterize its microstructureand optical properties for comparison with the isolated counterpart materials and a first-generation 3Y-TZP.Methods. Disc-shaped specimens were divided in four groups (n = 70/material): (1) 3YSB-E(first generation 3Y-TZP), (2) Zpex (second generation 3Y-TZP), (3) alumina, and (4) ZTA-Zpex70/30. After synthesis, ceramic powders were pressed, and green-body samples sinteredfollowing a predetermined protocol. Specimens were polished to obtain a mirror surfacefinish. Apparent density was measured by Archimedes principle. X-ray diffraction (XRD)and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to characterize the crystalline contentand microstructure. Reflectance tests were performed to determine the contrast-ratio (CR)and translucency-parameter (TP). Mechanical properties were assessed by biaxial flexuralstrength (BFS) test. All analyses were conducted before and after artificial aging (20 h, 134◦C, 2.2 bar). Optical parameters were evaluated through repeated-measures analysis of variance and Tukey tests (p < 0.05). BFS data were analyzed using Weibull statistics (95% CI). Results. High density values (95–99%) were found for all ceramic materials and SEM images exhibited a dense microstructure. While XRD patterns revealed the preservation of crys- talline content in the ZTA composite, an increase in the monoclinic peak was observed for pure zirconias after aging. Significantly higher CR and lower TP values were observed for the ZTA composite, followed by alumina, 3YSB-E, and Zpex. The highest characteristic stress was recorded for 3YSB-E, followed by intermediate values between ZTA and Zpex, and the lowest for alumina. Aging affected the optical and mechanical properties of both zirconias, while remained stable for ZTA composite and alumina. Significance. The synthesis of experimental 70−30% ZTA composite was successful and its relevance for dental applications relies on its higher masking ability, aging resistance, and strength similar to zirconia.

    Palavras-Chave: composite materials; zirconium oxides; aluminium oxides; mechanical properties; optical properties; microstructure; dentistry; prostheses

  • IPEN-DOC 27575

    LICHTENTHALER, R.; APPANNABABU, S.; ALVAREZ, M.A.G.; RODRIGUEZ-GALLARDO, M.; LEPINE-SZILY, A.; PIRES, K.C.C.; SANTOS, O.C.B.; UMBELINO, U.; FARIA, P.N. de; GUIMARAES, V.; ZEVALLOS, E.O.N.; SCARDUELLI, V.; ASSUNCAO, M.; SHORTO, J.M.B. ; BARIONI, A.; ALCANTARA-NUNEZ, J.; MORCELLE, V.; SERRA, A.. Alpha-particle production in the 6He+120Sn collision. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, v. 1643, p. 1-6, 2020. DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/1643/1/012093

    Abstract: Alpha particle energy distributions in the 6He+120Sn collision have been measured at 7 bombarding energies above the Coulomb barrier. A phenomenological analysis of the centroids of the experimental distributions was performed and compared with the expected alpha-particle energies from breakup and neutron transfer reactions. Q-optimum conditions were determined using the Brinks formula for the di-neutron transfer reaction. A comparison of the measured alpha-particle production cross-sections with Continuum Discretized Coupled Channels (CDCC) calculations for breakup is presented.

    Palavras-Chave: alpha particles; helium 6; energy spectra; elastic scattering; neutron transfer; coupled channel theory; angular momentum

  • IPEN-DOC 27841

    BERGAMO, EDMARA T.P.; CARDOSO, KARINA B.; LINO, LUCAS F.O.; CAMPOS, TIAGO M.B.; MONTEIRO, KELLI N.; CESAR, PAULO F.; GENOVA, LUIS A. ; THIM, GILMAR P.; COELHO, PAULO G.; BONFANTE, ESTEVAM A.. Alumina-toughened zirconia for dental applications: physicochemical, mechanical, optical, and residual stress characterization after artificial aging. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, v. 109, n. 8, p. 1135-1144, 2021. DOI: 10.1002/jbm.b.34776

    Abstract: To characterize the physicomechanical properties of an alumina-toughened zirconia (ATZ). ATZ synthesis consisted of the addition of alumina particles in an yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (3Y-TZP) matrix. Specimens were obtained by uniaxial and isostatic pressing ATZ and 3Y-TZP powders and sintering at 1600°C/1 h and 1550°C/1 h, respectively. Crystalline content and residual stress were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Microstructure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Optical properties were determined by reflectance test. Mechanical properties were assessed by biaxial flexural strength test. All analyses were performed before and after aging (134°C, 20 h, 2 bar). XRD and SEM revealed a typical ATZ and 3Y-TZP crystalline content, chiefly tetragonal phase, with a dense polycrystalline matrix, though a smaller grain size for ATZ. Aging triggered a similar monoclinic transformation for both systems; however, ATZ exhibited higher residual compressive stresses than 3Y-TZP. While as-processed 3Y-TZP demonstrated significantly higher characteristic strength relative to ATZ, no significant difference was observed after aging (~215 MPa increase in the ATZ strength). ATZ presented significantly higher opacity relative to 3Y-TZP, although aging significantly increased the translucency of both systems (increase difference significantly higher in the 3Y-TZP compared to ATZ). ATZ physicomechanical properties support its applicability in the dental field, with a lower detrimental effect of aging relative to 3Y-TZP.

    Palavras-Chave: zirconium; dentistry; ceramics; composite materials; optical properties; aging

  • IPEN-DOC 27964

    GATTI, LUCIANA V. ; BASSO, LUANA S.; MILLER, JOHN B.; GLOOR, MANUEL; DOMINGUES, LUCAS G. ; CASSOL, HENRIQUE L.G.; TEJADA, GRACIELA; ARAGAO, LUIZ E.O.C.; NOBRE, CARLOS; PETERS, WOUTER; MARANI, LUCIANO; ARAI, EGIDIO; SANCHES, ALBER H.; CORREA, SERGIO M.; ANDERSON, LIANA; VON RANDOW, CELSO; CORREIA, CAIO S.C. ; CRISPIM, STEPHANE P.; NEVES, RAIANE A.L.. Amazonia as a carbon source linked to deforestation and climate change. Nature, v. 595, n. 7867, p. 388-393, 2021. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-03629-6

    Abstract: Amazonia hosts the Earth’s largest tropical forests and has been shown to be an important carbon sink over recent decades. This carbon sink seems to be in decline, however, as a result of factors such as deforestation and climate change. Here we investigate Amazonia’s carbon budget and the main drivers responsible for its change into a carbon source. We performed 590 aircraft vertical profiling measurements of lower-tropospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide at four sites in Amazonia from 2010 to 2018. We find that total carbon emissions are greater in eastern Amazonia than in the western part, mostly as a result of spatial differences in carbon-monoxide-derived fire emissions. Southeastern Amazonia, in particular, acts as a net carbon source (total carbon flux minus fire emissions) to the atmosphere. Over the past 40 years, eastern Amazonia has been subjected to more deforestation, warming and moisture stress than the western part, especially during the dry season, with the southeast experiencing the strongest trends. We explore the effect of climate change and deforestation trends on carbon emissions at our study sites, and find that the intensification of the dry season and an increase in deforestation seem to promote ecosystem stress, increase in fire occurrence, and higher carbon emissions in the eastern Amazon. This is in line with recent studies that indicate an increase in tree mortality and a reduction in photosynthesis as a result of climatic changes across Amazonia.

    Palavras-Chave: climatic change; burns; carbon sources; emission; deforestation; troposphere; temperature measurement; environmental impacts; amazon river

  • IPEN-DOC 25090

    FALCAO, R.B. ; DAMMANN, EDGAR D.C.C. ; ROCHA, C.J. ; DURAZZO, M. ; ICHIKAWA, R.U. ; MARTINEZ, L.G. ; BOTTA, W.J.; LEAL NETO, R.M. . An alternative route to produce easily activated nanocrystalline TiFe powder. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, v. 43, n. 33, p. 16107-16116, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.07.027

    Abstract: In this paper, an alternative process route to produce active nanocrystalline TiFe compound was investigated. First, TiH2 and Fe powders were dry co-milled in a planetary ball mill for 5e40 h. TiH2 was selected as precursor powder, instead of Ti powder, due its fragility, which has proved to be beneficial to decrease powders adherence on milling tools. In terms of loose powder mass, milling yields ranged from 90 to 95 wt.%. Next, milled powders were post-heated at 873 K under dynamic high-vacuum for TiFe synthesis reaction. First hydrogen absorption was verified in situ during the cooling process of samples (until the room temperature), being the amount of hydrogen absorbed and desorbed by this samples measured by automated Sievert's apparatus, under constant hydrogen flow rate of 9 cm3. min-1 (dynamic measurements). Besides to allowing the first absorption in situ, the investigated process route also allowed the production of the non-stoichiometric TiFe compound (rich in Ti) in samples milled for shorter times (5 and 10 h), both characteristics associated with maintaining the mechanical compound activity. Each sample absorbed hydrogen at 2 MPa during the cooling process, requiring no additional thermal activation cycles, since the samples milled for shorter times (mainly for 10 h) could absorb hydrogen for the first time more easily. However, the samples milled for longer times (25 and 40 h) shown better results in terms of reversible and storage capacities (0.73 and 0.94 wt.%, respectively).

    Palavras-Chave: nanostructures; powders; titanium hydrides; iron compounds; hydrides; milling; hydrogen storage

  • IPEN-DOC 26862

    GARCIA, PAULO R.A.F.; PRYMAK, OLEG; GRASMIK, VIKTORIA; PAPPERT, KEVIN; WLYSSES, WAGNER; OTUBO, LARISSA ; EPPLE, MATTHIAS; OLIVEIRA, CRISTIANO L.P.. An in situ SAXS investigation of the formation of silver nanoparticles and bimetallic silver–gold nanoparticles in controlled wet-chemical reduction synthesis. Nanoscale Advances, v. 2, n. 1, p. 225-238, 2020. DOI: 10.1039/c9na00569b

    Abstract: We present a study on the formation of silver (Ag) and bimetallic silver–gold (AgAu) nanoparticlesmonitored by in situ SAXS as well as by ex situ TEM, XRD and UV-vis analysis in a flow reactor at controlled reaction temperature. The formation mechanism of the nanoparticles is derived from the structural parameters obtained from the experimental data. The evolution of the average particle size of pure and alloyed nanoparticles shows that the particle growth occurs initially by a coalescence mechanism. The later growth of pure silver nanoparticles is well described by Ostwald ripening and for the alloyed nanoparticles by a process with a significantly slower growth rate. Additionally, the SAXS data of pure silver nanoparticles revealed two major populations of nanoparticles, the first one with a continuous crystal growth to a saturation plateau, and the second one probably with a continuous emergence of small new crystals. The particle sizes obtained by SAXS agree well with the results from transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The present study demonstrates the capability of an in situ investigation of synthesis processes using a laboratory based SAXS instrument. Online monitoring of the synthesis permitted a detailed investigation of the structural evolution of the system.

    Palavras-Chave: nanoparticles; small angle scattering; x-ray diffraction; silver; bimetals; gold; monte carlo method; nanostructures; alloys

  • IPEN-DOC 25206

    FREITAS, LUCAS F. de ; VARCA, GUSTAVO H.C. ; BATISTA, JORGE G. dos S. ; LUGAO, ADEMAR B. . An overview of the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using radiation technologies. Nanomaterials, v. 8, n. 11, 2018. DOI: 10.3390/nano8110939

    Abstract: At a nano-level, optical properties of gold are unique and gave birth to an emerging platform of nanogold-based systems for diverse applications, because gold nanoparticle properties are tunable as a function of size and shape. Within the available techniques for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles, the radiolytic synthesis allows proper control of the nucleation process without the need for reducing agents, in a single step, combined or not with simultaneous sterilization. This review details and summarizes the use of radiation technologies for the synthesis and preparation of gold nanoparticles concerning fundamental aspects, mechanism, current pathways for synthesis and radiation sources, as well as briefly outlines final applications and some toxicity aspects related to nanogold-based systems.

    Palavras-Chave: gold; nanoparticles; gamma radiation; electron beams; x-ray sources; radiolysis; nanotechnology; medicine; diagnostic uses; ionizing radiations

  • IPEN-DOC 27582

    LIMA, CAROLINE S.A. de ; BALOGH, TATIANA S. ; VARCA, JUSTINE P.R.O. ; VARCA, GUSTAVO H.C. ; LUGAO, ADEMAR B. ; CAMACHO-CRUZ, LUIS A.; BUCIO, EMILIO; KADLUBOWSKI, SLAWOMIR S.. An updated review of macro, micro, and nanostructured hydrogels for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Pharmaceutics, v. 12, n. 10, p. 1-28, 2020. DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics12100970

    Abstract: Hydrogels are materials with wide applications in several fields, including the biomedical and pharmaceutical industries. Their properties such as the capacity of absorbing great amounts of aqueous solutions without losing shape and mechanical properties, as well as loading drugs of different nature, including hydrophobic ones and biomolecules, give an idea of their versatility and promising demand. As they have been explored in a great number of studies for years, many routes of synthesis have been developed, especially for chemical/permanent hydrogels. In the same way, stimuli-responsive hydrogels, also known as intelligent materials, have been explored too, enhancing the regulation of properties such as targeting and drug release. By controlling the particle size, hydrogel on the micro- and nanoscale have been studied likewise and have increased, even more, the possibilities for applications of the so-called XXI century materials. In this paper, we aimed to produce an overview of the recent studies concerning methods of synthesis, biomedical, and pharmaceutical applications of macro-, micro, and nanogels.

    Palavras-Chave: hydrogels; drugs; synthesis; cross-linking; skin; animal tissues; gamma radiation

  • IPEN-DOC 26403

    OLIVEIRA, ALINE M. de; SOUZA, CRISTINA T.; OLIVEIRA, NARA P.M. de; MELO, ALINE K.S.; LOPES, FABIO J.S. ; LANDULFO, EDUARDO ; ELBERN, HENDRIK; HOELZEMANN, JUDITH J.. Analysis of atmospheric aerosol optical properties in the northeast Brazilian atmosphere with remote sensing data from MODIS and CALIOP/CALIPSO satellites, AERONET photometers and a ground-based Lidar. Atmosphere, v. 10, n. 10, p. 1-22, 2019. DOI: 10.3390/atmos10100594

    Abstract: A 12-year analysis, from 2005 to 2016, of atmospheric aerosol optical properties focusing for the first time on Northeast Brazil (NEB) was performed based on four di erent remote sensing datasets: the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), the Cloud-Aerosol LIDAR with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and a ground-based Lidar from Natal. We evaluated and identified distinct aerosol types, considering Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Angström Exponent (AE). All analyses show that over the NEB, a low aerosol scenario prevails, while there are two distinct seasons of more elevated AOD that occur every year, from August to October and January to March. According to MODIS, AOD values ranges from 0.04 to 0.52 over the region with a mean of 0.20 and occasionally isolated outliers of up to 1.21. Aerosol types were identified as sea spray, biomass burning, and dust aerosols mostly transported from tropical Africa. Three case studies on days with elevated AOD were performed. All cases identified the same aerosol types and modeled HYSPLIT backward trajectories confirmed their source-dependent origins. This analysis is motivated by the implementation of an atmospheric chemistry model with an advanced data assimilation system that will use the observational database over NEB with the model to overcome high uncertainties in the model results induced by still unvalidated emission inventories.

    Palavras-Chave: aerosols; aerosol monitoring; optical radar; dusts; datasets; satellites; atmospherics; meteorology; optical properties; brazil; atmospheric circulation

  • IPEN-DOC 24335

    DURAZZO, MICHELANGELO ; SALIBA-SILVA, ADONIS M. ; GARCIA, RAFAEL H.L. ; CARVALHO, ELITA F.U. de ; RIELLA, HUMBERTO G.. Analysis of slag formation during UF4 magnesiothermic reduction. Nuclear Technology, v. 200, n. 2, p. 170-176, 2017. DOI: 10.1080/00295450.2017.1353870

    Abstract: Metallic uranium is a fundamental raw material for producing nuclear fuel elements for research reactors and irradiation targets for producing 99Mo, as U3Si2, UMo alloy, UAlx, and uranium thin foils. Magnesiothermic reduction of UF4 is a possible route in the nuclear fuel cycle for producing uranium as a metal ingot. The main concern about the reducing scale to produce low-enriched (metallic) uranium (LEU) (around 1 kg) is the relatively low yield compared to calciothermic reduction. Nevertheless, the magnesiothermic reduction has the advantages of having lower cost and being a safer method for dealing with uranium processing. The magnesiothermic process, as a batch, is closed inside a sealed crucible. In the present study, in order to have a qualitative idea of the kinetics during the ignition moment, the slag projected over the lateral inner face of the crucible was used to sketch the general magnesiothermic evolution. The methods used were metallographic observation and X-ray diffraction followed by Rietveld refinement. The results of these analyses led to the conception of a general reaction development during the short time between the ignition of the reducing reaction and final settlement of the products. Relevant information from this study led to the conclusion that uranium is not primarily present in the lateral slag projection over the crucible during the reaction, and the temperature level may reach 1500°C or more, after the ignition.

    Palavras-Chave: fissionable materials; fuel cycle; fuel cycle centers; magnesium; reduction; nuclear fuels; nuclear materials management; management; uranium; metallography; x-ray diffraction

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Buscar os artigos apresentados em um evento internacional de 2015, sobre loss of coolant, do autor Maprelian.

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Ano de publicação: 2015

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ATENÇÃO!

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O gerenciamento do Repositório está a cargo da Biblioteca do IPEN. Constam neste RI, até o presente momento 20.950 itens que tanto podem ser artigos de periódicos ou de eventos nacionais e internacionais, dissertações e teses, livros, capítulo de livros e relatórios técnicos. Para participar do RI-IPEN é necessário que pelo menos um dos autores tenha vínculo acadêmico ou funcional com o Instituto. Nesta primeira etapa de funcionamento do RI, a coleta das publicações é realizada periodicamente pela equipe da Biblioteca do IPEN, extraindo os dados das bases internacionais tais como a Web of Science, Scopus, INIS, SciElo além de verificar o Currículo Lattes. O RI-IPEN apresenta também um aspecto inovador no seu funcionamento. Por meio de metadados específicos ele está vinculado ao sistema de gerenciamento das atividades do Plano Diretor anual do IPEN (SIGEPI). Com o objetivo de fornecer dados numéricos para a elaboração dos indicadores da Produção Cientifica Institucional, disponibiliza uma tabela estatística registrando em tempo real a inserção de novos itens. Foi criado um metadado que contém um número único para cada integrante da comunidade científica do IPEN. Esse metadado se transformou em um filtro que ao ser acionado apresenta todos os trabalhos de um determinado autor independente das variáveis na forma de citação do seu nome.

A elaboração do projeto do RI do IPEN foi iniciado em novembro de 2013, colocado em operação interna em julho de 2014 e disponibilizado na Internet em junho de 2015. Utiliza o software livre Dspace, desenvolvido pelo Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Para descrição dos metadados adota o padrão Dublin Core. É compatível com o Protocolo de Arquivos Abertos (OAI) permitindo interoperabilidade com repositórios de âmbito nacional e internacional.

1. Portaria IPEN-CNEN/SP nº 387, que estabeleceu os princípios que nortearam a criação do RDI, clique aqui.


2. A experiência do Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP) na criação de um Repositório Digital Institucional – RDI, clique aqui.

O Repositório Digital do IPEN é um equipamento institucional de acesso aberto, criado com o objetivo de reunir, preservar, disponibilizar e conferir maior visibilidade à Produção Científica publicada pelo Instituto, desde sua criação em 1956.

Operando, inicialmente como uma base de dados referencial o Repositório foi disponibilizado na atual plataforma, em junho de 2015. No Repositório está disponível o acesso ao conteúdo digital de artigos de periódicos, eventos, nacionais e internacionais, livros, capítulos, dissertações, teses e relatórios técnicos.

A elaboração do projeto do RI do IPEN foi iniciado em novembro de 2013, colocado em operação interna em julho de 2014 e disponibilizado na Internet em junho de 2015. Utiliza o software livre Dspace, desenvolvido pelo Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Para descrição dos metadados adota o padrão Dublin Core. É compatível com o Protocolo de Arquivos Abertos (OAI) permitindo interoperabilidade com repositórios de âmbito nacional e internacional.

O gerenciamento do Repositório está a cargo da Biblioteca do IPEN. Constam neste RI, até o presente momento 20.950 itens que tanto podem ser artigos de periódicos ou de eventos nacionais e internacionais, dissertações e teses, livros, capítulo de livros e relatórios técnicos. Para participar do RI-IPEN é necessário que pelo menos um dos autores tenha vínculo acadêmico ou funcional com o Instituto. Nesta primeira etapa de funcionamento do RI, a coleta das publicações é realizada periodicamente pela equipe da Biblioteca do IPEN, extraindo os dados das bases internacionais tais como a Web of Science, Scopus, INIS, SciElo além de verificar o Currículo Lattes. O RI-IPEN apresenta também um aspecto inovador no seu funcionamento. Por meio de metadados específicos ele está vinculado ao sistema de gerenciamento das atividades do Plano Diretor anual do IPEN (SIGEPI). Com o objetivo de fornecer dados numéricos para a elaboração dos indicadores da Produção Cientifica Institucional, disponibiliza uma tabela estatística registrando em tempo real a inserção de novos itens. Foi criado um metadado que contém um número único para cada integrante da comunidade científica do IPEN. Esse metadado se transformou em um filtro que ao ser acionado apresenta todos os trabalhos de um determinado autor independente das variáveis na forma de citação do seu nome.